COMPOSITION of ESSENTIAL OIL
The essential oil contained in the fruits includes
Myristic Acid (aka
TetraDecanoic Acid), a saturated fatty acid of formula CH3(CH2)12COOH, as well as several monoterpenes one of which is said to be β-tereBangelene, C10H16 but no structural formula for this is to be found on the internet (Jan 2016), but there are only a finite (but well over 50) Google-Search C10H16) possible different structures that this could possibly be - one including Adamantane (although if the author meant that, he would surely have said so). However, Terpinolene is claimed to be present in Garden Angelica, and this is a C10H16 compound, perhaps this is β-tereBangelene? But then so is 3-Carene. Both of these are shown below.
The essential oil is also said to contain:
α-Pinene, β-Pinene, Camphene, Sabinene, α-Phellandrene, β-Phellandrene, Bornyl Acetate, β-
Cryptone, cis-Ocimene, Trans-Ocimene,
Humulene oxide, Limonene, Myrcene,
TriDecanolide, 15-PentaDecanolide (see below), para-Cymene, rho-
Cymenol, Terpinolene and
Another source says the major terpenoid compounds in the root oils were 19-42% α-Pinene, 21-28% (+)-Sabinene and 22% (+)-
3-Carene in one sample, but 0% in another sample. Whereas the oil from the seeds contained >60% β-Phellandrene, with other significant components (+)-Sabinene, α-Pinene, Myrcene, (-)-α-Phellandrene, (-)-α-Pinene and (-)-Limonene.
The composition will indubitably vary with growing conditions and climate in the growing seasons and with the presence of any pathogens which the plant may have to defend itself against by producing obnoxious chemicals, which it need not waste energy producing when any pathogens or predators are absent.
Any of the above compounds which lack a link to the page showing them are depicted below.
Some specimens contain about 1%-2% Zingiberene, the sesquiterpene found in Ginger being the compound which gives
Ginger its distinctive taste. In the essential oils of Ginger it comprises up to 30%, but in Garden Angelica only 1.3% - 1.9%. Another pungent and this time hot-tasting component of Ginger is the fairly similar compound
Zingerone which has a resemblance to
Capsaicin, the hot component in Chilis, but
Zingerone does not occur in Wild Angelica.
Note the resemblance to another compound found in Garden Angelica, namely α-Bisabolene.
Bisabolene is a sesquiterpene which is found in the essential oil of several plants such as Oregano and
Lemon. It acts as a pheromone to several insects such as Fruit Flies and Stink Bugs.
Terpinen-4-ol is found in the essential oil derived from the non-natives
Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) where it occurs as the main component and in
Juniper (Juniperus communis) which is thought to be why Juniper wood used as fence posts are highly resistant to rotting. It exhibits anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties.
Terpinolene aka δ-Terpinene is one of over 50 different C10H16 compounds and is also found in the non-native tree
Monterey Cypress. There are 3 more isomers of Terpinene, α-, β- and γ-Terpinene. Only the δ-isomer shown has the name Terpinolene. It is a monoterpene and is found in several plants, as is γ-Terpinene (
Cumin) and α-Terpinene (
Hemp and Marjoram). β-Terpinene is the only one not found in any plants.
Cryptone is a sesquiterpene ketone and is found in
Lavender, amongst many other aroma compounds. Your Author wonders if it is also found in the tree
Eucalyptus cryptone because of a nomenclature similarity/coincidence?
Cymenol has many isomers, depending whereabouts the hydroxy moiety is attached. Thymol is one such isomer, with the -OH attached directly to the ring. Your Author thinks this is the structure of ρ-Cymenol, perhaps the original reader misread p-Cymenol (para-Cymenol) as
ρ-Cymenol, because the 'p' character could be mistaken as the Greek 'rho' character (ρ). p-Cymenol aka
para-Cymenol aka Cymen-8-ol is a pale-yellow flammable liquid and an alcohol. It has an odour similar to
Carene, aka δ-3-Carene is a bicyclic monoterpene containing a strained cyclopropane ring and is found in Rosemary and in Turpentine amongst many other substances. It has a pungent but sweet pine wood or cedar wood aroma. It is one of over 50 different C10H16 compounds.
α-Copaene is a strained tricyclic sesquiterpene, an oily liquid found in several plants including the resin-producing tropical tree
Copaiba (Copaifera langsdorfii), from which it was first found in 1914 and from which it obtains its name. The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata finds the aroma of this compound strongly attracting and is used to entrap the flies to keep them away from fruits.
Humulene Oxide is Humulene (as found in Hops) with one of the double-bonds made into a single bond with a bridging epoxy oxygen atom. Humulene is another macrocyclic molecule, albeit containing only 11 atoms in the main ring.