WILD ANGELICA

Angelica sylvestris

Carrot Family [Apiaceae]

month8jun month8june month8jul month8july month8aug month8sep month8sept

status
statusZnative
 
flower
flower8white
 
inner
inner8green
 
morph
morph8hemizygo  morph8zygo
 
petals
petalsZ5
 
type
typeZclustered
 
type
typeZumbel
 
stem
stem8round
 
stem
stem8hollow
 
stem
stem8ribbed
 
smell
smell8angelica smell8musk smell8aromatic
angelica

23rd Aug 2007, Roud, IoW. Photo: (CC by 2.0) Geoff Toone
In a marshy area here. Wild Angelica likes to grow on the edge of woods or beside water.


2nd Sept 2008, a freshwater marsh, IoW. Photo: (CC by 2.0) Mike Cotterill
The lower leaves of Wild Angelica are less than (about) 1.5 times longer than wide (whereas those of Garden Angelica are greater than (about) twice as long as wide - an RWD observation)


2nd Sept 2008, a freshwater marsh, IoW. Photo: (CC by 2.0) Mike Cotterill
The white-topped umbels have flowers, the green-topped ones developing fruit.


26 Nov 2006, watermeadows, Alverstone, IoW. Photo: (CC by 2.0) Geoff Toone
The flowers are either white or pink (whereas those of Garden Angelica are greenish - but don't confuse the flowers with green fruit).


17th Aug 2007, Cromford Canal, Derbyshire. Photo: © RWD
The inflated bracts beneath the stem junctions are usually less inflated than the bloatedly-inflated ones of Garden Angelica.


17th Sept 2014, canalside, Peak Forest Canal. Photo: © RWD
On this example the umbel near the centre has fruits which are more developed (browner) than those on umbels on the periphery.


1st Sept 2018, Acton Grange, nr. Moore Nature Reserve, Warrington Photo: © RWD
This specimen still has peripheral umbels with flowers on and a central umbel turning to fruit. Stems often reddish - this specimen only at the leaf nodes (so far).


1st Sept 2018, Acton Grange, nr. Moore Nature Reserve, Warrington Photo: © RWD
View from above of previous plant. All umbels are hermaphroditic, but the central one usually develops fruit first which is why it has turned green (with white remnants of the ex-flowers).


1st Sept 2018, Acton Grange, nr. Moore Nature Reserve, Warrington Photo: © RWD
The flowers are tiny, white to pinkish, with each flower being more widely separated from its neighbours than those umbellets on Garden Angelica which are more compact. On the left are the tiny developing green fruits, some still with their anthers and lifeless petals. The fruits will grow much larger.


29th July 2017, dunes north of Ainsdale, Sefton Coast. Photo: © RWD
A very stubby young plant with anomalously pinkish flowers on one side and white flowers on the other. (the central areas of each still have as-yet unopened flower buds)


29th July 2017, dunes north of Ainsdale, Sefton Coast. Photo: © RWD
The central areas of each umbel of flowers still have as-yet unopened flower buds. On Wild Angelica there are between 15 to 40 rays - the rays are also not of equal length, their lengths can be 2 to 8cm long (on Garden Angelica there are about 40 rays [again not of equal length] but none as short: 4 to 8cm long). Wild Angelica lacks bracts on the rays.


29th July 2017, dunes north of Ainsdale, Sefton Coast. Photo: © RWD
Un-opened flower buds in centre of each umbellet of flowers. Only the outer flowers have slightly zygomorphic florets. Wild Angelica has between 6 and 10 linear (wire-like) bracteoles usually angled downwards from each umbellet (top right).


21st Aug 2016, unknown place. Photo: © Ann Collier


1st Sept 2018, Acton Grange, nr. Moore Nature Reserve, Warrington Photo: © RWD


1st Sept 2018, Acton Grange, nr. Moore Nature Reserve, Warrington Photo: © RWD
A single umbellet on a ray. The 6 to 10 bracteoles are linear (wire like) and angled downwards. Flowers white to pinkish, with long stamens. The tiny central yellow bits are the stylopodium. The rays are ribbed (as are the main stems of the plat) and both are densely populated with puberulent hairs (which means they are minute and hardly visible to the naked eye).


9th Sept 2007, Afton Marsh, IoW. Photo: (CC by 2.0) Mike Cotterill
Developing fruits en-masse.


13th Sept 2018, Carr Mill Dam, St Helens, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
Fruits - little (on the left) and larger (on the right).


13th Sept 2018, Carr Mill Dam, St Helens, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
Little and larger fruits.


13th Sept 2018, Carr Mill Dam, St Helens, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
Little fruits.


16th Sept 2014, MBBC canal, Radcliffe, Gtr M/cr. Photo: © RWD
Larger fruits.


16th Sept 2014, MBBC canal, Radcliffe, Gtr M/cr. Photo: © RWD
At first the four (two each side) winged lateral ridges of the fruits are not warped at the edges. But they do have a thin, white membraneous edge (absent on Garden Angelica fruits).


17th Sept 2014, canalside, Peak Forest Canal. Photo: © RWD
Older fruits. The white membraneous edges on the wings are warping.


16th Sept 2014, MBBC canal, Radcliffe, Gtr M/cr. Photo: © RWD


16th Sept 2014, MBBC canal, Radcliffe, Gtr M/cr. Photo: © RWD
The fruits will eventually (when ripe) grow to 4 or 5 mm long, longer than broad, with broad lateral wings with thinner membraneous white edges. The two wings are set slightly apart. The two stigma strongly curve away from each other and downwards, set parallel to the two wings. Each fruit has 3 parallel ridges in the centre.


17th Sept 2014, canalside, Peak Forest Canal. Photo: © RWD
The membraneous white edges to the wings become kinky and warped (differential growth).


17th Sept 2014, canalside, Peak Forest Canal. Photo: © RWD
Warped kinky membraneous white fringes on the wings.


17th Sept 2014, canalside, Peak Forest Canal. Photo: © RWD
The stylopodium on these specimens has turned pinkish, as have the reflexed styles witn stigma at their tips (best seen on right-most specimen).


16th Sept 2014, MBBC canal, Radcliffe, Gtr M/cr. Photo: © RWD
The fruits are only ripe when brown.


17th Aug 2007, Cromford Canal, Derbyshire. Photo: © RWD
The lower leaves of Wild Angelica are less than (about) 1.5 times longer than wide (whereas those of Garden Angelica are greater than (about) twice as long as wide - an RWD observation)


16th Sept 2014, MBBC canal, Radcliffe, Gtr M/cr. Photo: © RWD


16th Sept 2014, MBBC canal, Radcliffe, Gtr M/cr. Photo: © RWD
The terminal leaves on Wild Angelica are three separate leaves whereas those on Garden Angelica are fused into a single leaflet with three lobes. The leaves also have a much lower length to width ratio than the longer, more pointed leaves on Garden Angelica.


Easily confused with : Ground-Elder (Aegopodium podagraria) which has similar leaves but they are only up to 2-pinnate rather than 3-pinnate of Wild Angelica. The stems of Ground-Elder are green (rather than often suffused purple as is Wild Angelica), any sheaths under the branches are small or absent, and the fruits lack wings and have the two long stamens stretching wide apart like an old V-shaped TV aerial for 405-line B&W sets.

Not to be semantically confused with : Yellow Archangel (Lamiastrum galeobdolon) [a plant with similar common name to the scientific name of Wild Angelica (Angelica sylvestris)]

Easily mistaken for : Garden Angelica (Angelica archangelica), but the fruits of that do not have wings which are as broad as those on Wild Angelica, nor are those wings edged by a thinner whitish membrane as are those of Wild Angelica. The shape of the leaves of Garden Angelica are longer and narrower than those of Wild Angelica. The flowers of Garden Angelica are greenish, whereas those on Wild Angelica are white or pinkish. Uniquely identifiable characteristics

Distinguishing Features : The stems are purple. The flowers are in umbels where the secondary umbellets are separated from each other. The sheaths below the armpits of the leaves emerging from the main stem are very inflated. But upper leaves are just large sheaths with tiny leaflets. There are no bracts beneath the umbels but many short bracteoles under the (secondary) umbellets.


  Angelica sylvestris  ⇐ Global Aspect ⇒ Apiaceae  

Distribution
 family8Carrot family8Apiaceae
 BSBI maps
genus8Angelica
Angelica
(Angelicas)

WILD ANGELICA

Angelica sylvestris

Carrot Family [Apiaceae]