NETTLE-LEAVED BELLFLOWER

Campanula trachelium

Bellflower Family [Campanulaceae]

month8jun month8june month8jul month8july month8aug

status
statusZnative
flower
flower8blue
flower
flower8azure
inner
inner8yellow
morph
morph8actino
petals
petalsZ5
type
typeZspiked
stem
stem8square

Photo: © Simon Melville
Grows from 50 to 80cm high (max 1m) in woods, hedgebanks and scrubby grassland on dry limey soils.


5th July 2017, Photo: © Ian Preddy
This specimen has the more usual flower colour and the nettle-like leaves with irregular teeth, being more irregular nearer the stalk (which only lower leaves possess - the lower they are, the longer the leaf-stalk - up to 10cm long stalks for the lowest leaves).


5th July 2017, Photo: © Ian Preddy
The lower leaves are stalked (unlike those of the similar Giant Bellflower which lack stalks). Leaves up to 6-10cm long, and isosceles-triangular in outline.


5th July 2017, Photo: © Ian Preddy
The (lower part) of the stems are square with 'sharp' corners (rather than rather blunt or chamfered on the similar Giant Bellflower). The stems (and leaves) are also sparsely populated with rough hairs. Lower leaves are cordate at their stalks (rounded for upper leaves without stalks).


Photo: © Simon Melville
The flowers are in a spike with the top-most opening first. Upper leaves have smaller teeth and are joined directly onto the main stem without a leaf-stalk. Upper leaves are not cordate at the main stem (as lower leaves are) but rounded instead.


Photo: © Simon Melville
The flowers can also be pale blue or is it azure. Leaves with more numerous and shorter teeth near the top.


16th Aug 2014, Photo: © Ann Collier
The backs of the sepal teeth are hairy, as is the main stem. Flowers in small groups of 1 - 4 along the stem near the top.


16th Aug 2014, Photo: © Ann Collier
The sharply-squared stalk is even in evidence near the summit. The calyx teeth are narrow-triangular and more or less forwardly-directed.


Photo: © Simon Melville
The long style in the centre splits into 2 or 3 stigmas near the end. The corolla (which is 25-35mm across) is fused over the lowest part only splitting into 5 triangular lobes (petals) between 1/4 to 4/10 ths of the way to the base.


16th Aug 2014, Photo: © Ann Collier


16th Aug 2014, Photo: © Ann Collier
The style on this specimen is covered in yellow pollen released from the 5 stamens deeper down in the corolla.


16th Aug 2014, Photo: © Ann Collier
The inside of this flower has many long hairs strewn across the opening to help stop the entry of unwanted smaller insects (the larger ones are welcome and can easily push them aside). [One or two anthers on filaments much nearer the bottom].


16th Aug 2014, Photo: © Ann Collier
This specimen has a triple-blade propeller as the stigmas (they can have 5 stigmas). The yellow stuff definitely looks like pollen, but surrounds the style. The anthers (which are visible in the photo above this one) from which released the pollen are much deeper in the bowl of the flower. The style is covered in many short hairs and it is to those sticky hairs on which the pollen adheres having been ejected from the anthers deeper down. bellflowers are Protandrous (where the stamens mature before the stigma) which helps to protect against self-fertilisation. See Close-up of Campanula - Microscopy-UK


Photo: © Simon Melville
Upper leaves either stalkless or nearly so with rounded ends.


Photo: © Simon Melville
The lower the leaf, the longer its stalk and the more cardioid the leaf-end (left-most leaf).


Not to be semantically confused with : Nettle-leaved Michaelmas-daisy (Aster schreberi), Nettle-leaved Goosefoot (Chenopodium murale), Nettle-leaved Figwort (Scrophularia peregrina), Nettle-leaved Mullein (Verbascum chaixii) or Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica) [plants with similar names belonging to differing families]

Easily mis-identified as : Giant Bellflower (Campanula latifolia) - see captions for differences. No relation to : Dead-nettles or Hemp-nettles such as White Dead-Nettle (Lamium album), Large Hemp-Nettle (Galeopsis speciosa) nor to Horse-nettle (Solanum carolinense) [plants with similar names belonging to differing families].

It is native but is also grown in gardens from where it can escape.


  Campanula trachelium  ⇐ Global Aspect ⇒ Campanulaceae  

Distribution
 family8Bellflower family8Campanulaceae

 BSBI maps
genus8Campanula
Campanula
(Bellflowers)

NETTLE-LEAVED BELLFLOWER

Campanula trachelium

Bellflower Family [Campanulaceae]