LARGE BITTER-CRESS

Cardamine amara

Cabbage Family [Brassicaceae]  

month8may month8jun month8june

status
statusZnative
flower
flower8white
inner
inner8purple inner8mauve inner8violet
morph
morph8actino
petals
petalsZ4
stem
stem8round
stem
stem8ribbed

14th May 2010, River Kent, Levens, Cumbria. Photo: © RWD
About two feet tall, stems wavy, white flowers atop an un-branched stem. Grows near freshwater.


3rd May 2010, Prestwich Country Park, Gtr Mcr. Photo: © RWD
Leaves pinnate, without a basal rosette.


5th May 2018, Macclesfield Canal, Congleton, Cheshire. Photo: © RWD
Stem long and wavy, slightly grooved, with up to a dozen white flowers at the top. [Viewing screens are getting long too (at least on mobile phones). Your Author thinks this is the longest photo on this website. What is the word for a vertical panarama...]


5th May 2018, Macclesfield Canal, Congleton, Cheshire. Photo: © RWD
The pinnate leaves are alternate up the stem.


5th May 2018, Macclesfield Canal, Congleton, Cheshire. Photo: © RWD
Leaves narrower nearer the top of the plant, but still with rounded but few teeth


5th May 2018, Macclesfield Canal, Congleton, Cheshire. Photo: © RWD
Several flowering stems near the summit; fewer lower down the plant.


5th May 2018, Macclesfield Canal, Congleton, Cheshire. Photo: © RWD
The irregularly-toothed and sparsely-toothed leaves near the top of the plant. The teeth are well separated from each other.


14th May 2010, River Kent, Levens, Cumbria. Photo: © RWD
Leaves toothed. Stem slightly ridged. It is not this tall!


3rd May 2010, Prestwich Country Park, Gtr Mcr. Photo: © RWD
Flowers white, with four petals.


14th May 2010, River Kent, Levens, Cumbria. Photo: © RWD
Stems slightly ridged, four sepals, reddish at the points, much shorter than the flowers.


14th May 2010, River Kent, Levens, Cumbria. Photo: © RWD
Four petals white, rarely lilac. Sepals number four.


14th May 2010, River Kent, Levens, Cumbria. Photo: © RWD
Un-opened flower buds cluster top centre.


14th May 2007, stream, Greenfield, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
Violet anthers poking proud of the flower openings. Sepals cupped but elongated.


5th May 2018, Macclesfield Canal, Congleton, Cheshire. Photo: © RWD
Anthers change colour from match-stick red to violet. The 6 anthers are all more-or-less at the same height.


4th April 2019, Fairy Glen, Appley Bridge, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
Before they turn violet, the anthers are a striking matchstick red :-)

There is a central style with stigma atop.



4th April 2019, Fairy Glen, Appley Bridge, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
The cream-coloured pollen grains squeeze themselves out of the thin matchstick-red covering.


3rd May 2010, Prestwich Country Park, Gtr Mcr. Photo: © RWD
The anthers turn from red to violet. Petals have feint transparent veins.


3rd May 2010, Prestwich Country Park, Gtr Mcr. Photo: © RWD
Now violet anthers. Beginnings of seed pod growing in centre.


2nd April 2014, Yarrow Valley Country Park, Chorley, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
Young leaves in a wet woodland mire.


3rd May 2010, Prestwich Country Park, Gtr Mcr. Photo: © RWD
Leaves light-green and pinnate, leaflets all the same shape and size.


14th May 2010, River Kent, Levens, Cumbria. Photo: © RWD
Pinnate leaves.


Easily confused with : other white-flowered Bitter-cresses but this one is tall, loves being beside (sometimes in) water and has six violet or indigo equilength anthers. It has pinnate lower leaves with larger lobes than other Bitter-cresses.

Under heavy shade, as in Fairy Glen at Appley Bridge (rather than the Fairy Glen in the Isle of Man - although it just might grow there too), it doesn't grow as high as it would if in full sunlight.


  Cardamine amara  ⇐ Global Aspect ⇒ Brassicaceae  

Distribution
 family8Cabbage family8Brassicaceae

 BSBI maps
genus8Cardamine
Cardamine
(Bitter-cresses)

LARGE BITTER-CRESS

Cardamine amara

Cabbage Family [Brassicaceae]  

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