WILD DAFFODIL

LENT LILY

Narcissus pseudonarcissus

Onion & Garlic Family [Alliaceae]  
Formerly in: Lily Family [Liliaceae] then in Amaryllis Family for a while.

month8mar month8march month8apr month8april

status
statusZnative
flower
flower8cream
inner
inner8yellow
morph
morph8actino
petals
petalsZ6
type
typeZtrumpet
stem
stem8round
toxicity
toxicityZlowish

27th April 2013, Blackleach Rest, Walkden, Gtr M/cr. Photo: © RWD
Has greyish-green long linear leaves as tall as the flowers. Flower-heads angled slightly downwards.


27th April 2013, Blackleach Rest, Walkden, Gtr M/cr. Photo: © RWD
Six off-white petals (actually tepals) and long yellow corona.


27th April 2013, Blackleach Rest, Walkden, Gtr M/cr. Photo: © RWD
Corona tube is gently tapered and has only a very slight and short flare at the opening. Note the brownish paper-like bract common on Daffodils which occurs just before the droop. the tepals flare out from about half-way down the corona tube, which is not tinged orange or red at the rim.


27th April 2013, Blackleach Rest, Walkden, Gtr M/cr. Photo: © RWD
The six tepals are usually a slightly yellowish-white and convexly tapered especially where they peel off from the corona tube. The corona tube has a jagged termination. Six stamens reside deep within.


A PROBABLY CULTIVATED VARIETY

28th April 2010, Craven Arms, Shropshire. Photo: © RWD
This probably cultivated variety has flowers that are angled slightly upwards.


28th April 2010, Craven Arms, Shropshire. Photo: © RWD
And the six tepals are whiter and not as tapered as those of Wild Daffodil whilst the corona tube is a deeper shade of yellow.


28th April 2010, Craven Arms, Shropshire. Photo: © RWD
Also, the tepals are more wavy than those of Wild Daffodil, but other than those points already noted above, it is quite alike Wild Daffodil.


Sub-species pseudonarcissus

5th April 2009. Photo: © David Pilling
The sub-species of Wild Daffodil Narcissus Pseudonarcissus ssp pseudonarcissus. Note slightly drooping narcistic flower-heads. The leaves in this sub-species seem a little wider.


5th April 2009. Photo: © David Pilling
Narcissus Pseudonarcissus ssp pseudonarcissus. The tepals are swept forwards rather than stretched outwards or backwards.


5th April 2009. Photo: © David Pilling
Narcissus Pseudonarcissus ssp pseudonarcissus. Corona longer than the tepals.


A DOUBLE-FLOWERED MUTATION

 Mutations Menu

26th April 2013, in ancient woodland, nr Redford, West Sussex. Photo: © Dawn Nelson
A large wild patch about 12m wide (not fully shown here) together with a few outliers.


26th April 2013, in ancient woodland, nr Redford, West Sussex. Photo: © Dawn Nelson
Most flowers here were doubled and probably sterile, in-capable of producing seed.


26th April 2013, in ancient woodland, nr Redford, West Sussex. Photo: © Dawn Nelson
The doubling of the flower head is here occurring in a fully nested or concatenated manner with the tepals and corona nesting recursively inside one another - tepals corona (tepals corona (tepals corona (tepals corona))). Although they are nominally called 'double-flowers' there are actually four sub-nestings all in here.


Easily confused with : other Daffodils

Wild Daffodil is very variable. It can have either white, off-white (creamy) or yellow tepals. It always has a long and yellow central corona (trumpet). There are many sub-species. Identifying the numerous varieties of Daffodil is fraught with difficulty even for experts. Sometimes the closest one can get to a true ID is to say which of the 12 divisions to which it belongs. Wild Daffodil is in Division 1. All double-flowered daffodils are in Division 4 (Flore Plena).

Wild Daffodil is fairly scarce in the wild, even in the English Lake District (most specimens and gatherings were actually planted, albeit in some cases a very long time ago).

The bulbs of daffodils are sometimes confused with Onions leading to accidental poisoning.

Galantamine (aka Galanthamine) is an acclaimed drug (Nivalin®) for the treatment of Alzheimers disease, Polio, Central Nervous System disorders, and other problems to do with memory impairment. It is a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor and is contained in many plants of the Daffodil Family. Although Galantamine can now be synthesized in the laboratory, it is for the time being much cheaper to harvest the drug from specially cultivated Caucasian Snowdrop, and also from cultivated species of Daffodil for greater yield in the Brecon Beacons.

The Galamtamine is present only in certain varieties of Daffodil. If grown under stress at higher altitude, the Galantamine content is increased. Four varieties are being grown high up in the Brecon Beacons as a trial. Efforts are being made in the chemical synthesis of the drug to reverse the economics of the production of galantamine from Daffodils. Galantamine is present not only in Snowdrops and Daffodils but also in Summer Snowflake and Red Spider Lily, etc, which are all members of the Daffodil Family (Amaryllidaceae). Galantamine has also been used to induce lucid dreams and out of body experiences. A chemically very similar compound, Lycoramine, is present in Fir Clubmoss

Haemanthamine (aka Natalensine, or Hemanthidine or 3-Epicrinamine) is an alkaloid from Narcissus confusus with some chemical similarities to Galantamine, which was first isolated from Haemanthus ssp. hybrid 'King Albert'. It also occurs in Wild Daffodil. Extracts of the bulbs are used by Africans to treat a range of diverse ailments.

Both Pluvine and the related compound Norplovine, (10-methoxy-3,12-didehydro- galantam-1,9-diol) and several derivatives, are related to Galantamine, and also occur in Wild Daffodil and other members of the Daffodil Family.

Wild Daffodil also contains Lycorine the main pyrrolo-phenanthridene alkaloid contained in members of the Daffodil Family. It is toxic inducing vomiting and convulsions. Nevertheless it is sometimes used medicinally.

Over 100 biologically active alkaloids have been isolated from members of the former Daffodil Amaryllidaceae Family which has now been subsumed into the Garlic & Onion Family, Alliaceae.


  Narcissus pseudonarcissus  ⇐ Global Aspect ⇒ Alliaceae  

Distribution
 family8Daffodil family8Amaryllidaceae family8alliaceae family8onion family8garlic

 BSBI maps
genus8Narcissus
Narcissus
(Daffodils)

WILD DAFFODIL

LENT LILY

Narcissus pseudonarcissus

Onion & Garlic Family [Alliaceae]  
Formerly in: Lily Family [Liliaceae] then in Amaryllis Family for a while.

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