The next most common Fumitory after
Common Fumitory (Fumaria officinalis)
Easily mis-identified as :
Common Fumitory; the differences between the two are highlighted in the picture captions.
Common Ramping-fumitory is split up into three sub-species :
The above photos are those of sub-species boraei.
Common Ramping-Fumitory (Fumaria muralis ssp. boraei)
A Ramping-Fumitory (Fumaria muralis ssp. muralis) extant in less than three hectads
Davey's Ramping-Fumitory (Fumaria muralis ssp. neglecta) seemingly now extinct in the UK!
Some similarities to : many other
Superficial resemblance to : Climbing Corydalis in that the flowers are somewhat similar, but this has white flowers, un-lobed leaves, and tendrils with which it can climb.
Fumitories contain the alkaloid
Fumarine (not to be confused with the coumarine derivative
Fumarin which is not an alkaloid). Fumarine is otherwise known as Protopine, a benzylisoQuinoline alkaloid found in Berberis species. Common Ramping-Fumitory also contains
When broken, the stems, leaves and mid-ribs ooze a poisonous white latex which is dangerous should it get in the eye.
These isoquinoline alkaloids are found within Common Ramping-Fumitory. Protopine is also known as Fumarine (which should not be confused with the similarly spelled
Fumarin which is a coumarin derivative and not an alkaloid). Protopine has anti-bacterial properties.
Stylopine is another Berberine isoqoquinoline alkaloid, as is Protopine. It is also found in Greater Celandine, another member of the Papaveraceae Family and experiments suggest that it may contribute to the anti-inflammatory action of the yellowish juice which oozes from broken stems of Greater Celandine.
Fumaricine, is a spiro compound and acts as an anti-inflammatory. It has some similarities to another spiro compound called Mecambrine which is found within Welsh Poppy (Meconopsis cambrica)
Fumaric Acid, named after the Fumitories it was found within, is a simple dicarboxylic and un-saturated organic acid based upon trans-betene. It is isomeric with
Maleic Acid, found in
Apples, and is based upon cis-butene, but which is not, as far as your Author knows, found in Fumitories and is shown only for comparison purposes. Being the cis-form Maleic Acid has more internal energy than does Fumaric Acid, requiring more energy in synthesis.
Fumaric Acid is also found in Bolette Mushroom Boletus formentarius var. pseudo-igniarus and in lichen such as
Iceland Moss. One of Fumaric Acids synonyms is
Lichenic Acid. It is non-toxic and tastes sour, rather than bitter, as does
Maleic Acid. Used in cooking and as a food additive and as a substitute for Tartaric Acid in baking.