GOLDENROD

EUROPEAN GOLDENROD

Solidago virgaurea

Daisy & Dandelion Family [Asteraceae]

month8jul month8july month8aug month8sep month8sept

In the hills:
month8jul month8july month8aug month8sep month8sept

Pappus: pappusZpossible (white)
pappus8sep pappus8sept pappus8oct

status
statusZnative
flower
flower8yellow
inner
inner8orange
morph
morph8actino
petals
petalsZMany
type
typeZspiked
stem
stem8round

15th Aug 2016, coastal road cliffs, Great Orme, Llandudno. Photo: © Catherine Hill
Growing amongst the glaucous-green unmistakeable linear leaves of Sea Plantain on limestone rocks. Stunted because of the small amount of soil in which to grow tall. Flowers not yet fully opened.


7th Aug 2004, Newhey, Gtr Mcr. Photo: © RWD
Several plants close together by a stream.


31st July 2007, Gait Barrows, Silverdale, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
Flowers in a spike near top of 60cm stem, sparsely populated by narrow lanceolate leaves. from afar could be mistaken for Agrimony, but the flowers are a much deeper yellow.


5th Aug 2011, Tarn Hows Wood, Coniston, Cumvria. Photo: © RWD
This specimen has short alternate flowering side-branches set about 60° upwards, with short linear leaves coming from each juncture. A golden rod.


5th Aug 2011, Tarn Hows Wood, Coniston, Cumvria. Photo: © RWD
Alternate side banches alternate with curled-over linear leaves. Flowers are bright yellow, with between 6 and 10 long ray florets that are elliptical in outline.


31st July 2007, Gait Barrows, Silverdale, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
Yellow flowers not unlike those of Ragworts.


5th Aug 2011, Tarn Hows Wood, Coniston, Cumvria. Photo: © RWD
The side branches have even shorter, narrower linear leaves peeling away and back from it.


5th Aug 2011, Tarn Hows Wood, Coniston, Cumvria. Photo: © RWD
The sepal teeth are long and thin, and of various lengths.


31st July 2007, Gait Barrows, Silverdale, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
The flowers are close to the main stem in short branches off the main sten.


31st July 2007, Gait Barrows, Silverdale, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
Flowers are much larger than those of Canadian Goldenrod, and the jizz of the plant is quite unlike that of same.


31st July 2007, Gait Barrows, Silverdale, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
Flowers could easily be mistaken for Oxford Ragwort. Disc florets have orange stripes and are far from numerous.


31st July 2007, Gait Barrows, Silverdale, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
Lower leaves slightly broader than upper stem leaves.


31st July 2007, Gait Barrows, Silverdale, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
Stem leaves narrower nearer the top.


31st July 2007, Gait Barrows, Silverdale, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
Teeth on leaves either absent, or very slightly toothed.


5th Aug 2011, Tarn Hows Wood, Coniston, Cumvria. Photo: © RWD
Stem hairy and striated in red and green stripes.


23rd July 2013, Quinag (Sail Gharb, 808m), Assynt, NW Scotland Photo: © Catherine Hill
On top of a wind-swept summit in Northwest Scotland this specimen is stunted and almost beyond recognition of its' usual tall proud form, being just ~8cm high squatting between small boulders on a somewhat flattish terrain. The underlying rock is Torridonian sandstone. Birds-eye view.


23rd July 2013, Quinag (Sail Gharb, 808m), Assynt, NW Scotland Photo: © Catherine Hill
Keeping its head down it is strangely reminiscent of Mouse-ear Hawkweed. Even the petals appear stunted from those of a normal Goldenrod, but they do have the characteristic midriff bulge which is more barrel-shaped in this specimen. Catherine has shared this photo with us so we too are better prepared to expect the un-expected.


Some similarities to : Oxford Ragwort and Common Ragwort, but leaves are very different.

With 5 yellow petals it has a slight resemblance to:

  • Agrimony from afar, but flowers are larger, held further away from the top of the stalk, and of a brighter golden yellow.
  • Some St. John's Worts, such as Hairy St. John's Wort (apart from the hairs).
Unexpectedly, the flowering season is a month earlier in the hills, starting from June rather than July.

Habitat: likes growing in wooded, rocky or grassy places.

Goldenrod contains saponins derived from Polygallic Acid such as Virgaurea saponins I, II and III, Virgaureoside A and Leicarposide. It also contains Solidagosaponins 21 - 30 inclusive some of which (all?) are tridesmosidic saponins. Virgaureasaponin 3 is a new 3,28-bidesmosidic triterpene glycoside, specifically 3-O-β-D-Glucopyranosyl - (1→3)-β-D-Glucopyranosyl Polygalacic Acid. Leicarposide, a phenolic glycoside, is hydrolyzed to Salicylic Acid in the gut and because of this displays anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The diuretic properties of Goldenrod are said to be due to flavonoids.

It also contains some plant-defensive chemicals, the cis-Clerodane diterpenes, such as Elongatolide C & E, to guard against external pests. Also Solidagolactones I-VII. Also acetylenic compounds.

European Goldenrod contains several flavonoids (Quercetin 1.5% and Kaempferol plus their glucosides: Rutoside and Astragalin respectively. Also triterpene saponins of the Oleane type (2%) and the bisdesmosidic phenol glucoside Leiocarposide and Virgaureoside.

The small amount of essential oil obtained from Goldenrod contains Cadinene, Pinene, Myrcene, Limonene, Sabinene and Germacrene D.

Several phenolic acids are present such as Caffeic Acid, Clorogenic Acid, Ferulic Acid, Sinapic Acid (aka Sinapinic Acid) and Vanillic Acid.


  Solidago virgaurea  ⇐ Global Aspect ⇒ Asteraceae  

Distribution
 family8Daisy & Dandelion family8Asteraceae

 BSBI maps
genus8Solidago
Solidago
(Goldenrods)

GOLDENROD

EUROPEAN GOLDENROD

Solidago virgaurea

Daisy & Dandelion Family [Asteraceae]

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