COMMON HEMP-NETTLE

Galeopsis tetrahit

Mint / Dead-Nettle Family [Lamiaceae]

month8jul month8july month8aug month8sep month8sept

status
statusZnative
 
flower
flower8bicolour
 
flower
flower8white
 
flower
flower8pink flower8mauve
 
inner
inner8yellow
 
morph
morph8zygo
 
petals
petalsZ2
 
stem
stem8square
 
stem
stem8hollow
 
smell
smell8strong smell8foul
strong

7th Aug 2008, Etherow Valley, Gtr. M/cr. [White variety] Photo: © RWD
A common arable weed that grows to 1m. It seem to the Author that the white variety (in this photo) is more common than is the pinkish-red one (below), despite the fact that the books say it is the other way around.


10th Aug 2012, Flagg, Derbyshire. [Pink Variety] Photo: © RWD
Typical stance: a pair of opposite stems branch off the main stem in V-formation every so often.


10th Aug 2012, Flagg, Derbyshire. [Pink Variety] Photo: © RWD
Leaves Nettle-shaped but lack stinging hairs).


10th Aug 2012, Flagg, Derbyshire. [Pink Variety] Photo: © RWD
Flowers at the ends of all branches. Leaves have a satin sheen on top and rounded teeth.


10th Aug 2012, Flagg, Derbyshire. [Pink Variety] Photo: © RWD
Flowers emerge from a five-spiked sepal tube which are quite sharp.


10th Aug 2012, Flagg, Derbyshire. [Pink Variety] Photo: © RWD
Flowers have a cowl and thre lower lobes a little like those of either Pyramidal Orchid or Red Valerian.


10th Aug 2012, Flagg, Derbyshire. [Pink Variety] Photo: © RWD
Flowers have a long tapering section before opening up.


10th Aug 2012, Flagg, Derbyshire. [Pink Variety] Photo: © RWD
Sepal tubes are green with reddish brown marks and extremely long and sharp teeth.


10th Aug 2012, Flagg, Derbyshire. [Pink Variety] Photo: © RWD
Flowers hairy, with longer hairs atop the cowl.


10th Aug 2012, Flagg, Derbyshire. [Pink Variety] Photo: © RWD
Central lip is slightly longer than the two side lips. Cowl short and curved.


10th Aug 2012, Flagg, Derbyshire. [Pink Variety] Photo: © RWD
Central lip without a nick (if nicked, then it is probably Bifid Hemp-Nettle which also has the darker markings which extend to the nick; if only slightly nicked then it could be the hybrid between Common Hemp-nettle and Bifid Hemp-Nettle). Pale-yellow markings surrounded by a deeper purple area on central lip. Flower also pale-yellow in the tapering tube.


10th Aug 2012, Flagg, Derbyshire. [Pink Variety] Photo: © RWD


10th Aug 2012, Flagg, Derbyshire. [Pink Variety] Photo: © RWD
Sepal tubes, many empty, have purple-brown markings.


10th Aug 2012, Flagg, Derbyshire. [Pink Variety] Photo: © RWD
Seven-fold branching all in the same plane. Outer pair of stalks bear a single leaf on a long stalk, next pair of stalks a few leaves whilst the inner V-shaped pair of stalks are flowering stalks. The central stalk is a thinner extension of the main stalk which also bears flowers.


10th Aug 2012, Flagg, Derbyshire. [Pink Variety] Photo: © RWD
Flowering stems square. All stems have longish trichomes (hairs with a bulbous base, but in this case they do not secrete noxious substances as do the trichomes on Stinging Nettle).


10th Aug 2012, Flagg, Derbyshire. [Pink Variety] Photo: © RWD
Leaves in opposite pairs.


10th Aug 2012, Flagg, Derbyshire. [Pink Variety] Photo: © RWD
The leaves also have inconspicuous hairs (probably trichomes), are deeply veined and with bluntish teeth.


7th Aug 2008, Etherow Valley, Gtr. M/cr. [White variety] Photo: © RWD
Some specimens have a menacing appearance with long and sharp dark-purple-brown sepal teeth.


7th Aug 2008, Etherow Valley, Gtr. M/cr. [White variety] Photo: © RWD
Markings on white variety similar to those on pink variety but without the overall pink colouring.


8th Aug 2012, a garden, Sabden, Lancashire. [Intermediate variety] Photo: © RWD
In a garden.


8th Aug 2012, a garden, Sabden, Lancashire. [Intermediate variety] Photo: © RWD
Growing wild in a garden. These flowers have even longer tapering tubes before opening out, but the Author still thinks these are within the envelope of Common Hemp-nettle.


8th Aug 2012, a garden, Sabden, Lancashire. [Intermediate variety] Photo: © RWD
The flowers here are as long as those of Henbit Dead-nettle, but are otherwise totally differing conforming to the variation to be found within Common Hemp-nettle.


8th Aug 2012, a garden, Sabden, Lancashire. [Intermediate variety] Photo: © RWD
Some examples of Common Hemp-nettle do have several short teeth at the end of the cowl, as here. These examples have a central lip suffused with a pale mauve. Perhaps these are just more mature than the others shown on this page.


Hybridises with : Bifid Hemp-Nettle (Galeopsis bifida) to produce Galeopsis × ludwigii but the above photos are not the hybrid since the hybrid does not grow anywhere near the shooting location of the above photographs.

Extremely similar to: Bifid Hemp-Nettle (Galeopsis bifida). The identifying feature to differentiate the two is the total lack of any nick in the central lower lip and the paler markings on Common Hemp-nettle which never extend as far as the end of the lip.

Similar to : Red Hemp-Nettle (Galeopsis angustifolia) which has downy (rather than hairy) stems and the flowers are a deep-pink and the leaves narrower than either Common Hemp-nettle or Bifid Hemp-Nettle.

Not to be semantically confused with : Hemp (Cannabis sativa) [a plant with similar name belonging to a differing family]

Not relation to : Stinging Nettle [a plant with similar name and similar leaves].

Not to be confused with : Dead-nettles such as Red Dead-Nettle which belong in differing Genera within the same Mint and Dead-nettle Family.

An annual which grows both in arable fields and on disturbed ground, in damp woodland, stream-banks, fens and heaths. More common than Bifid Hemp-Nettle.


  Galeopsis tetrahit  ⇐ Global Aspect ⇒ Lamiaceae  

Distribution
 family8Mint / Dead-Nettle family8Lamiaceae

 BSBI maps
genus8Galeopsis
Galeopsis
(Hemp-Nettles)

COMMON HEMP-NETTLE

Galeopsis tetrahit

Mint / Dead-Nettle Family [Lamiaceae]