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IVY

Hedera helix

Ivy Family [Araliaceae]  

month8sep month8sept month8Oct month8Nov

category
category8Climbers
category
category8Evergreen
status
statusZnative
flower
flower8cream
morph
morph8actino
petals
petalsZ1
type
typeZglobed
stem
stem8round
toxicity
toxicityZmedium
contact
contactZmedium

14th April 2008, Duckington, Cheshire. Photo: © RWD


25th Sept 2008, Silverdale, Lancs. Photo: © RWD


22nd Aug 2007, Llanfairfechan, North Wales. Photo: © RWD


15th Dec 2008, Talkinhead, Lancs. Photo: © Jeremy Roberts
The lower dome is in flower, with green flowers, the top-most one in the early stages of fruit.


25th Sept 2008, Silverdale, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
Topmost dome has only just started turning to fruit, the others the petals have yet to un-furl.


22nd Aug 2007, Llanfairfechan, North Wales. Photo: © RWD
Petals not yet unfurled on these flowers.


25th Sept 2008, Silverdale, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
Five pale-green petals now un-furled revealing 5 anthers on each flower. The flowers appear in Autumn; the fruits the next spring.


16th Sept 2009, Silverdale, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
The petals are fairly robust for their size. The stamens with yellow/green turning brown anthers at their tips protrude outward and upwards. Ovary green/yellow at first with short style in centre.


2nd Jan 2016, Knott Mill, Castlefields, M/cr. Photo: © RWD
Recently developed fruits, remains of style still in centre.


19th March 2009, Appley Bridge, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
Fruit green at first turning yellow to red then purple before finally finishing black when ripe.


25th March 2015, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Adlington, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
Turning purplish-black.


19th March 2009, Appley Bridge, Lancs. Photo: © RWD
And ending up black.


22nd Aug 2007, Llanfairfechan, North Wales. Photo: © RWD
New leaves Ace-of-Spades shaped.


Photo: © RWD
Older leaves darker green and 5-lobed.


Photo: © RWD
Pale veins.


2nd Jan 2016, Knott Mill, Castlefields, M/cr. Photo: © RWD
Numerous short roots are presented on climbing stems. These have yet to find a substrate on which to take hold.


2nd Jan 2016, Knott Mill, Castlefields, M/cr. Photo: © RWD
Short roots awaiting an opportunity to take root if the growing stem reaches a suitable surface on which to purchase itself.


2nd Jan 2016, Knott Mill, Castlefields, M/cr. Photo: © RWD
The roots awaiting a substrate, which could be the trunk of a tree, a garden fence or anything on which it can both attach to and obtain sustainance.


Not to be confused with: Poison Ivy, a non-native climber/small shrub which is highly toxic (and which does not, as far as the Author is aware, grow in the UK). It can cause severe and damaging blisters when touched.

Lookee-Likees : several other Ivies, most of which are non-native and escaped from gardens.

No relation to : Ivy Broomrape, Ground Ivy, Ivy-Leaved Toadflax, Ivy-Leaved Crowfoot or Ivy-Leaved Bellflower [plants with similar names]

The sap of Ivy, if it comes into contact with the skin, can cause dermatitis, sometimes with severe blistering and inflammation.

The flowers of Ivy make a useful contribution with providing out-of-season nectar to butterflies in late autumn. This is especially important in really wet and cool years when flowers are not in great abundance, such as the record-breaking wet year of 2012 (which was drought-ridden until April, then it almost never stopped raining, flooding huge areas time and time again, month by month).

Although it has 'roots' which readily attach themselves to substrates such as fences and trees, the 'roots' do not draw sustenance from the tree it climbs: it is not parasitic. And, contrary to common thinking, it will not strangle trees and prevent them from growing; far from it, it avoids going anywhere near the smaller branches where the leaves of the tree harvest sunlight.

POLYACETYLENES (POLYYNES)

Falcarinols are naturally occurring acetylenic alcohols (note the two highly energetic triple bonds, extremely unusual in the natural world) present in (English) Ivy. They are strongly fungicidal, a natural defence from invading organisms. In their fungicidal role, they often function as phytoalexins, the mammalian equivalent being anti-bodies. In Ivy, they are both allergenic and irritant to humans. Another polyacetylene is also present: 11-dehydrofalcarinol. Falcarinol (aka Panaxynol) is present in Ivy and in Hemlock Water-Dropwort (Oenanthe crocata) and causes contact dermatitis in certain individuals when the plants are handled.

Falcarinols also occur in the roots of carrots, their concentration increasing with prolonged storage. In carrots they can cause allergenic contact dermatitis, an occupational hazard for carrot pickers. Because of the highly reactive triple-bonds, polyacetylenes such as these are very toxic.

The flowers of Ground Elder contain the highest concentration of falcarindiol, up to 9% by weight. Falcarindiol has been shown to possess anti-cancer activity. Some other umbellifers also contain compounds containing triple-bonded carbon atoms.

These polyacetylenes, or more correctly, polyynes, are responsible for the contact dermatitis that may result from touching and handling Ivy, or any other plant containing them, such as the roots of Water Hemlock (Oenanthe crocata)

HEDERAGENIN

Hederagenin is a saponin and pre-cursor to many of the compounds present in Ivy, some of which are shown below. It is not a main component of Ivy. Bayogenin is almost identical except that an extra 'OH' is added on the carbon atom just above the left-most 'HO' group.

HEDERASAPONINS


Ivy also contains a number of hederasaponins, which, by partial hydrolysis and loss of sugars, leads to α-hederin, β-hederin and hederacolchiside A1, which are being investigated for their possible use in treating lung cancer and leishmaniosis, caused by a water-borne parasite which lives in tropical areas.


  Hedera helix  ⇐ Global Aspect ⇒ Araliaceae  

Distribution
family8ivy family8Araliaceae

 BSBI maps
genus8hedera
Hedera
(Ivies)

IVY

Hedera helix

Ivy Family [Araliaceae]  

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