Not to be semantically confused with : Oxeye Daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare),
Autumn Oxeye (Leucanthemum serotina),
Hawkweed Oxtongue (Picris hierarcioides) [plants with similar names and belonging to the same Family but in a differing genus but which have white petals which are broader]. Nor with Yellow Oxeye (Telekia speciosa) or
Hawkweed Oxtongue (Picris hieracioides) which are also yellow and in the same family but in differing genera.
Yellow Oxytropis (Oxytropis campestris),
Oxtongue Broomrape (Orobanche picridis) and
Purple Oxytropis (Oxytropis halleri) also sound similar but are in differing families altogether.
Similarities to :
Hawkweed Oxtongue (Picris hierarcioides), and appears as 4 differing sub-species: ssp. hieracioides, ssp. spinulosa, ssp. villarsii, ssp. grandiflora. All have stiff bristles on the stems which are hooked at their ends.
Some similarities to : Common Fiddleneck (Amsinckia micrantha) which is about the same height, has very similar leaves with similar bristles and stems and yellow-coloured flowers but they are 5-petalled and belong to the different Borage Family (Boraginaceae).
Distinguishing Feature : the large pale-green pimples on the leaves where bristles emerge.
Bristly Oxtongue is in a genus all on its' own. It inhabits rough grassy places especially near the sea or on clayey soils. It is a biennial/annual. Its scientific name alludes to its former use as a treatment for internal infestations of parasitic worms, or helminths. The anthelmintic properties are bestowed upon the plant by the milky white latex containing several sesquiterpene lactones, such as Lactucin, DeOxyLactucin and Lactucopicrin. It seems some animals such as dogs may self-medicate themselves by eating the plant with relish, according to one owner. There is a trend amongst the Asteraceae family to possess such sesquiterpene lactones within the hair glands, but in the case of Chicory, Sow-thistles such as Smooth Sow-Thistle and
Lettuce they are components of the milky sap of the stems (or of the roots in the case of Chicory). Your Author has investigated the chemical composition of currently prescribed anthelmintics and finds that none of them are lactones.