SHAGGY SOLDIER

Galinsoga quadriradiata

Daisy & Dandelion Family [Asteraceae]  

Flowers:
month8jun month8june month8jul month8july month8Aug month8sep month8sept month8Oct month8Nov

Pappus: pappusZpossible (very short)
pappus8sep pappus8sept pappus8oct pappus8nov

status
statusZneophyte
 
flower
flower8yellow
 
inner
inner8white
 
morph
morph8actino
 
petals
petalsZ5
   (4)
stem
stem8round
 

24th Sept 2014, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Maghull. Photo: © RWD
Grows to between 10 and 25cm high occupying bare and waste ground, more frequent in London area.


24th Sept 2014, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Maghull. Photo: © RWD
Shaggier with more rough hairs than the otherwise almost identical Gallant Soldier.


24th Sept 2014, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Maghull. Photo: © RWD
Stems and leaves hairy with both ordinary and glandular hairs.


24th Sept 2014, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Maghull. Photo: © RWD
Broader leaves at the bottom.


24th Sept 2014, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Maghull. Photo: © RWD
Branches tri-furcate, the shortest usually being the central ones.


24th Sept 2014, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Maghull. Photo: © RWD
Leaves vary in shape from narrow lanceolate near the summit to pointed oval nearer the bottom.


24th Sept 2014, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Maghull. Photo: © RWD
Leaves in pairs, toothed or slightly toothed, often with two narrow leaflets each side.


24th Sept 2014, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Maghull. Photo: © RWD
The five well-separated white petals (ray florets / ligules) have three prominent lobes each.


24th Sept 2014, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Maghull. Photo: © RWD
The petals are slightly longer and the flower slightly larger than those on Gallant Soldier.


24th Sept 2014, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Maghull. Photo: © RWD
Like Gallant Soldier it has 5 sepals.


24th Sept 2014, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Maghull. Photo: © RWD
Both Gallant Soldier and Shaggy Soldier can be hairy with both eglandular and glandular hairs, but Gallant Soldier has far fewer hairs. Yellow disc florets in the centre almost ready to become pappus with seeds.


24th Sept 2014, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Maghull. Photo: © RWD
Showing the receptacular scales, which are the thin fawn-coloured scaly coverings around the stalks holding the seed, and the annular pappus around the seed.


24th Sept 2014, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Maghull. Photo: © RWD
Both Gallant Soldier and Shaggy Soldier possess pappus scales (the 'feathers)' fringed with hairs, but only Shaggy Soldier has a fine terminal projections at their tips. This is the most reliable differentiator between the two species. Another indicator is that on Gallant Soldier the fawn-coloured receptacular scales are mostly and distinctly 3-lobed, whereas in Shaggy Soldier they are mostly simple, with only a few having one or two weak lateral lobes. The seeds are the black, small, circular and bristly at the centre of each 'feathery umbrella' in both species.


24th Sept 2014, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Maghull. Photo: © RWD
The leaves may have hairs emerging from raised pimples.


24th Sept 2014, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Maghull. Photo: © RWD
Both Gallant Soldier and Shaggy Soldier possess glandular hairs on the stems which have tiny pale-mauve coloured bobbles on the end, the glands, and shorter non-glandular hairs, but Gallant Soldier has far fewer of either type of hair.


Easily confused with : Gallant Soldier (Galinsoga parviflora), but Gallant Soldier is much less straggly and more upright and bespoke. There is only one feature by which it is reliably differentiated from Gallant Soldier and that is by the shape of the pappus scales (the 'feathers' on the seeds). See image captions.

Distinguishing Feature for Soldiers : The five (or sometimes only four) short white ray florets with large gaps between. Shaggy Soldier has slightly longer petals than Gallant Soldier.

Claim to Fame: Along with Gallant Soldier and Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) this plant has the fewest outer petals of any member of the Daisy and Dandelion Family, totalling a meagre five, apart from those plants which have no outer florets such as Groundsells. Most other members of this family have many more than a dozen outer petals.

No relation to : Water-Soldier (Stratiotes aloides) [a plant with similar name]

It is an unusual compositae (Daisy & Dandelion Family) plant in that it has only five (white) rays, the fewest for any composite (except for Sneezewort ()Achillea ptarmica which also has only 5 petals but that does not have yellow disc florets), but many (yellow) disc florets.


  Galinsoga quadriradiata  ⇐ Global Aspect ⇒ Asteraceae  

Distribution
family8daisy family8dandelion  family8Asteraceae

 BSBI maps
genus8galinsoga
Galinsoga
(Gallant Soldiers)

SHAGGY SOLDIER

Galinsoga quadriradiata

Daisy & Dandelion Family [Asteraceae]  

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