SKULLCAP

Scutellaria galericulata

Mint / Dead-Nettle Family [Lamiaceae]  

month8jun month8june month8jul month8july month8Aug month8sep month8sept

status
statusZnative
flower
flower8bicolour
flower
flower8blue
inner
inner8white
morph
morph8zygo
petals
petalsZ2
type
typeZfused
stem
stem8square

30th Aug 2010, MB&BC canal, Nob End, Ringley, Gtr M/cr. Photo: © RWD
Loves growing right at water-level over the coping stones of canals and is best seen from a narrow boat.


6th Sept 2005, Rufford Branch, Leeds & L/pool Canal. Photo: © RWD
Sprawls somewhat as it grows up to 50cm in length.


6th Sept 2012, Macclesfield Canal, Cheshire. Photo: © RWD
Lower down the stems branch.


13th Aug 2007, Kiveton Bridge, Chesterfield Canal. Photo: © RWD
Flowers in parallel pairs on the same side up the stem Pairs of opposite leaves are on alternate sides of the square stem. Flowers take on a shallow S-curve like the horn of a tuba. Leaves have reddish veins.


11th Aug 2015, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Parbold, Lancs Photo: © RWD
Leaves in opposite pairs on a square stem, alternately at right-angles. Stem ridged on corners in places.


13th Aug 2007, Kiveton Bridge, Chesterfield Canal. Photo: © RWD
Leaves lanceolate either stalkless or on short stalks and only vaguely toothed, or not at all.


6th Sept 2012, Macclesfield Canal, Cheshire. Photo: © RWD
The opened sepals have a upright flap on the upper surface.


19th Aug 2007, Wheelton, Leeds & Liverpool Canal. Photo: © RWD
Stems reddish-brown and square with slight ribs on the edges.


27th June 2015, Knowsley Safari Park, Prescot, Merseyside. Photo: © RWD
Flower in two lips; an upper hood and a longer and curved over lower lip. Flower strongly curved upwards out of the sepal tube/calyx.


27th June 2015, Knowsley Safari Park, Prescot, Merseyside. Photo: © RWD
Stems, leaves and flowers slightly hairy. The lower lip has a whitish central area with mauve spots. Blueness appears in various places on the flower.


6th Sept 2012, Macclesfield Canal, Cheshire. Photo: © RWD
View from below of the sexual organs tucked away in the upper lip. Flower 10-20mm long.


11th Aug 2015, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Parbold, Lancs Photo: © RWD
Looped spots on lower lip reminiscent of those on some orchids, such as Common Spotted-Orchid, but no UK orchid is this shade of blue. Lip only vaguely lobed.


11th Aug 2015, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Parbold, Lancs Photo: © RWD
The spotted lip.


11th Aug 2015, Leeds & Liverpool Canal, Parbold, Lancs Photo: © RWD
The sexual organs are deep within the hairy 'snout'. Inside somewhere are 4 stamens and a single stigma.


13th Aug 2007, Kiveton Bridge, Chesterfield Canal. Photo: © RWD
The fruits look like Donald Duck wearing a policemans helmet. It is only in 2 parts/lips.


30th Aug 2010, MB&BC canal, Nob End, Ringley, Gtr M/cr. Photo: © RWD
The developing fruits.


Hybridizes with : Lesser Skullcap (Scutellaria minor) to produce Scutellaria × hybrida, which now only grows just south of London and near Portsmouth.

Very similar to: Lesser Skullcap, but that is pinkish-lilac rather than sky blueish.

FLAVONOIDS in SKULLCAP

Apigenin is a flavone which is responsible for the cancer prevention characteristics of several vegetables and fruits. It puts mammalian cells into autophagia, a kind of protective dormancy. Apigenin is a potent inhibitor of an enzyme responsible for the metabolization of many pharmaceutical drugs within the human body, so should be regarded with care. It also induces resistance against chemotherapy.

Hispidulin is another flavone, this one can traverse the blood-brain barrier and has anti-convulsive effects. It is a moderator of central nervous system activity.

Luteolin, another flavone, is a free-radical scavenger and is thought to play a role as an anti-oxidant when in the human body where it moderates the immune system. It is most often found in the leaves of plants, but is also found in Celery, Dandelion, Thyme, Sage, Rosemary, Peppermint, Oregano and Carrots.

Skullcaps are well known for their rich variety and abundance of flavonoids, to which are ascribed most of their medicinal properties. The flavonoids include Apigenin, Hispidulin, Luteolin, Scutellarein and its glycoside Scutellarin (being Scutellarein-7-glucuronide). The first four are flavones. Scutellarin can be decomposed into Scutellarein on hydrolysis.

Skullcap also contains the iridoid glycoside Catalpol.


  Scutellaria galericulata  ⇐ Global Aspect ⇒ Lamiaceae  

Distribution
family8mint family8Dead-Nettle  family8Lamiacaea

 BSBI maps
genus8Scutellaria
Scutellaria
(Skullcaps)

SKULLCAP

Scutellaria galericulata

Mint / Dead-Nettle Family [Lamiaceae]  

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