AMERICAN WILLOWHERB

Epilobium ciliatum

Willowherb Family [Onagraceae]  

Flowers:
month8jun month8june month8jul month8july month8Aug

Pappus: pappusZpossible (white, long, simple, within a 4-sided pod)
pappus8aug pappus8sep pappus8sept pappus8oct

status
statusZneophyte
flower
flower8pink flower8lilac
inner
inner8white
inner
inner8white
morph
morph8actino
petals
petalsZ4
inner
inner8white
stem
stem8round

5th July 2014, Leeds & L/pool Canal, Rimrose, Merseyside. Photo: © RWD
A non-native introduced species growing to between 20cm and 80cm (1m max) which spreads fast; now one of the commoner Willowherbs. Tall specimens with branches, like this one, are more likely to be hybrids, which have lower fertility..


5th July 2014, Leeds & L/pool Canal, Rimrose, Merseyside. Photo: © RWD
Grows in urban areas in gardens, on walls, in waste ground and also in marshes, streamsides, canals woods. Branched. Often tinged red over much of the plant.


5th July 2014, Leeds & L/pool Canal, Rimrose, Merseyside. Photo: © RWD
Leaves narrow lanceolate tapering to a point and weakly toothed on the edges.


5th July 2014, Leeds & L/pool Canal, Rimrose, Merseyside. Photo: © RWD
Flowers lilac to pinkish-purple (sometimes white).


5th July 2014, Leeds & L/pool Canal, Rimrose, Merseyside. Photo: © RWD
Flowers on long square 'stalks' (as are most willowherbs).


5th July 2014, Leeds & L/pool Canal, Rimrose, Merseyside. Photo: © RWD
Four often reddish long sepals cup the flower.


5th July 2014, Leeds & L/pool Canal, Rimrose, Merseyside. Photo: © RWD
Flowers are small and have four petals which are 3-6mm long and deeply-nicked.


5th July 2014, Leeds & L/pool Canal, Rimrose, Merseyside. Photo: © RWD
In the centre is a white club-shaped stigma (as are several other Willowherbs, whilst others have a '+' shaped stigma). It is surrounded by 8 stamens (the same for all Epiloboim Willowherbs).


5th July 2014, Leeds & L/pool Canal, Rimrose, Merseyside. Photo: © RWD
The upper part of the plant is covered in two differing types of short hairs: appressed hairs and glandular hairs.


5th July 2014, Leeds & L/pool Canal, Rimrose, Merseyside. Photo: © RWD
A much shorter specimen. The tall specimens with branches are more likely to be hybrids which have reduced fertility. Short specimens are more likely to be pure.


5th July 2014, Leeds & L/pool Canal, Rimrose, Merseyside. Photo: © RWD
The top half of the plant.


5th July 2014, Leeds & L/pool Canal, Rimrose, Merseyside. Photo: © RWD
Reddish stems.


5th July 2014, Leeds & L/pool Canal, Rimrose, Merseyside. Photo: © RWD
The leaves either have no stalk tapering to the stem (left) or only a short stalk (right) and a rounded base. Stem round (not square as in some other Willowherbs). It may, or may not have 4 raised ridges, with either short hairs all around, or in 2 rows (sometimes in 4 rows).


5th July 2014, Leeds & L/pool Canal, Rimrose, Merseyside. Photo: © RWD
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No to be semantically confused with: American Wintercress (Barbarea verna) [plants belonging to differing families]

Hybridizes with other Willowherbs, namely:

  • New Zealand Willowherb (Epilobium brunnescens) to produce Epilobium × brunnatum
  • Hoary Willowherb (Epilobium parviflorum) to produce Epilobium × floridulum
  • Broad-Leaved Willowherb (Epilobium montanum) to produce Epilobium × interjectum
  • Marsh Willowherb (Epilobium palustre) to produce Epilobium × fossicola
  • Square-stalked Willowherb (Epilobium tetragonum) to produce Epilobium × mentiens
  • Great Willowherb (Epilobium hirsutum) to produce Epilobium × novae-civitatis
  • Pale Willowherb (Epilobium roseum) to produce Epilobium × nutantiflorum
  • Short-fruited Willowherb (Epilobium obscurum) to produce Epilobium × vicinum.
All one big happy family!

Lookee-Likees : Many other Willowherbs!


  Epilobium ciliatum  ⇐ Global Aspect ⇒ Onagraceae  

Distribution
family8Willowherb family8Onangraceae

 BSBI maps
genus8Epilobium
Epilobium
(Willowherbs)

AMERICAN WILLOWHERB

Epilobium ciliatum

Willowherb Family [Onagraceae]  

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