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CHINESE WITCH-HAZEL

Hamamelis mollis

Witch-Hazel Family [Hamamelidaceae]

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category
category8Trees
 
category
category8Deciduous
 
category
category8Broadleaf
 
status
statusZalien
 
flower
flower8yellow
 
inner
inner8red
 
morph
morph8actino
 
petals
petalsZ4
 
stem
stem8round
 
smell
smell8spicy
spicy
toxicity
toxicityZlowish
 

10th March 2009, nr Ringinglow, Sheffield. Photo: © RWD
A strikingly colourful cultivated tree that flowers very early in the year well before the leaves appear.


10th March 2009, nr Ringinglow, Sheffield. Photo: © RWD
This specimen is well encrusted with moss and lichen. This particular Witch Hazel flowers very early in the year, and well before any leaves develop which might partially obscure the striking flowers.


10th March 2009, nr Ringinglow, Sheffield. Photo: © RWD
Flowers have four yellow petals which are very long and ribbon-like.


10th March 2009, nr Ringinglow, Sheffield. Photo: © RWD
The four sepals are red wide, and splayed open.


10th March 2009, nr Ringinglow, Sheffield. Photo: © RWD
Flowers are attached directly onto the twigs without stalks.


10th March 2009, nr Ringinglow, Sheffield. Photo: © RWD
Petals in a cross arrangement. Flowers probably sterile?


10th March 2009, nr Ringinglow, Sheffield. Photo: © RWD
Several flowers usually grow very close together, but these bunches are often well separated from one another.


No relation to : Hazel (which belongs to the Corylus Genus, a member of the Birch (Betulaceae Family)) [a tree with similar name] - but the leaves are similar.

Not to be semantically confused with : Wych Elm (Ulmus glabra) which is another tree belonging to the Elm (Ulmus genus, nor with Witch's Broom a gall on some trees.

Can be artificially hybridised with : Japanese Witch-Hazel to produce Hamamelis intermedia, from which numerous different cultivars are produced.

Some similarities to : Cornelian Cherry (Cornus Mas) which is also a tree bearing yellow, 4-petalled flowers in January well before the leaves.

Lookee-Likees : many other Witch Hazels.

Uniquely identifiable characteristics

Distinguishing Feature (of Witch-Hazels) : The four long, narrow, linear petals emerging from stalk-less flowers which grow at shortish intervals along the twigs and branches.

Witch-Hazel trees are cultivated. They are not native and most have to be grown by grafting onto the rootstock of another Witch-Hazel, usually Hamamelis virginiana. There are many hybrids, Intermediate Witch-Hazel being but one which is derived from the hybrid between Chinese Witch-Hazel and Japanese Witch-Hazel Hamamelis japonica. They are not very common, for the grafting process means their cost is high.

Being cultivated does not prevent them spreading, however, which they do only by suckering, especially if the graft happens to be below ground level. Chinese Witch-Hazel is the more decorative of other previous cultivated varieties (such as Hamamelis virginiana), and flowers earlier before the leaves, which otherwise partially obscure the flowers on these preceding varieties of Witch-Hazel.

TANNINS


It has a high proportion of tannins, both hamamelitannins and gallotannins, which are toxic to the kidneys and the liver. It also contains catechols and proanthocyanidins. It has anti-inflammatory and astringent properties. The Hamamelitannin shown is based upon a central unit of D-Ribose to which are attached two identical Galloyl units (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate).

ODOROUS COMPOUNDS


The essential oil, of which the tree can supply very little, contains Hexenol, α-Ionone, β-Ionone, Safrole (aka Shikimol) and traces of Eugenol, Carvacrol and some sesquiterpenes.

Witch Hazel is better known for the steam distillate that can be produced from it in greater quantities than can the essential oil. The steam distillate is used medicinally (externally) as a styptic to stem blood flow from an external wound. The steam distillate lacks the tannins but has the same volatiles as the essential oil together with a spicy aroma.

Safrole (aka Shikimol) is a phenylpropene and is a slightly yellow oily liquid that is found in the fruit and root-bark of the Sassafras plants (which are not native to the UK) from which 'root-beer' or Sarsaparilla cordial is produced, and which once included Safrole as an ingredient. Safrole itself is poisonous and now has to be removed from any oils intended for human consumption. Safrole also occurs in a number of spices such as Cinnamon, Nutmeg, Black Pepper and in herbs such as Basil. Safrole used to be included in some soaps as a fragrance, but that use too is now banned.

α-Ionone is one of the Rose Ketones so named because they are found in essential oils of Roses, as well as in the essential oils of some other plants.. There are three Ionones, α-Ionone, β-Ionone, and γ-Ionone, all having the same skeletal shape, but with the double bond in differing places. All are aroma compounds used in perfumery, and are degradation products of the Carotenoids.


  Hamamelis mollis  ⇐ Global Aspect ⇒ Hamamelidaceae  

Distribution
family8Witch-hazel family8Hamamelidacaea

 BSBI maps
genus8Hamamelis
Hamamelis
(Witch-Hazels)

CHINESE WITCH-HAZEL

Hamamelis mollis

Witch-Hazel Family [Hamamelidaceae]

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