SALT TOLERANT SPECIES

SALT TOLERANT SPECIES

This comprises ten lists of plants using the Ellenberg scale for salt tolerance, which goes from 9, the maximum possible salt tolerance to just 1 where the plants are just slightly tolerant to low concentrations of salt. The remaining plants exhibit no tolerance of salt and are accorded the Ellenberg value of 0 for 'zero' salt-tolerance. This last, salt-intolerant, list is by far the longest.

Salt Tolerance 9. Species of extremely saline conditions, in sites where sea water evaporates, precipitating salt (Salicornia europaea agg.; these could equally well be treated as species of the lower marsh)

Salt Tolerance 8. Species more or less permanently inundated in sea water (Zostera spp.)

Salt Tolerance 7. Species of lower saltmarsh (Spartina anglica, Suaeda maritima)

Salt Tolerance 6. Species of mid-level saltmarsh (Atriplex portulacoides, Cochlearia anglica, Limonium vulgare)

Salt Tolerance 5. Species of the upper edge of saltmarsh, where not inundated by all tides (includes obligate halophytes of cliffs receiving regular salt spray) (Aster tripolium, Crithmum maritimum, Puccinellia maritima, Suaeda vera)

Salt Tolerance 4. Species of salt meadows and upper saltmarsh, subject to at most only very occasional tidal inundation (includes species of brackish conditions, i.e. of consistent but low salinity) (Atriplex littoralis, Elytrigia atherica, Glaux maritima, Triglochin maritimum)

Salt Tolerance 3. Species most common in coastal sites but regularly present in freshwater or on non-saline soils inland (includes strictly coastal species occurring in sites such as cliff crevices and sand dunes that are not obviously salt-affected) (Cakile maritima, Cochlearia officinalis, Juncus gerardii, Spergularia rupicola)

Salt Tolerance 2. Species occurring in both saline and non-saline situations, for which saline habitats are not strongly predominant (Atriplex prostrata, Elytrigia repens, Phragmites australis, Rumex crispus)

Salt Tolerance 1. Slightly salt-tolerant species, rare to occasional on saline soils but capable of persisting in the present of salt (includes dune and dune-slack species where the ground water is fresh but where some inputs of salt spray are likely) (Calystegia sepium, Chenopodium album, Oenanthe crocata, Sedum anglicum)

Salt Tolerance 0. Absent from saline sites; if in coastal situations, only accidental and non-persistent if subjected to saline spray or water (85% of the flora).


NOTES:
There are known known, unknown known, known unknown and unknown unknown numbers of errors in this list. Some are twicers, appearing in the list under differing salt-tolerances. Your Author cannot correct this, for he does not know which list they should appear under, or whether in those instances there are two populations of some plants, some more tolerant than are others.

Ellenberg Salt-tolerance scales 1-3 include plants which would rather be in non-salty areas where they would normally grow much better and larger; they only inhabit these slightly salty areas because there is no competition from the zero-salt-tolerant plants where they would rather be if only it weren't so overcrowded with these salt-intolerant plants. They have learned to cope with a little salt in order to enjoy a less crowded landscape. Some plants in these categories can also be found well inland in non-salty areas where they will grow better. Salt-tolerance costs the plants energy, and if the plant can also live in saltless areas, then it need not expend energy sequestering salt in special compartments or pumping salt out from itself.

The salinity of sea-water is normally 3.5%, but in restricted seas can be much higher. It must be remembered that the salinity of the ground further away from the sea diminishes due to two main factors. The distance sea ground-water or sea-spray can reach, and the dilution caused by rainwater or rain ground-water. Naturally, this varies week to week.

N.B. 'Salt' does not necessarily imply only NaCl, but can also include many other components of sea water. Here is a list in decreasing amounts, listing just the ions and anions followed by their concentrations in mol/kg: H2O 53.6,    Cl- 0.546,    Na+ 0.469,    Mg2+ 0.0528,    (SO4)2- 0.0282,    Ca2+ 0.0103,    K+ 0.0102,    Br- 0.000844,    B 0.000416,    Sr2+ 0.000091,    F- 0.000068.

See:
1 - Thrift for more on salt-tolerance mechanisms, metallophytes and Halophytes.

2 - Sea Water Composition (and plants)

  


Salt Tolerance 9         [5 species]
Species of extremely saline conditions, in sites where sea water evaporates, precipitating salt (Salicornia europaea agg.; these could equally well be treated as species of the lower marsh).
 Common Name Binomial Name
Glasswort (Common)(Salicornia europaea)
Glasswort (Glaucous)(Salicornia obscura)
Glasswort (Long-spiked)(Salicornia dolichostachya)
Glasswort (Purple)(Salicornia ramosissima)
Glasswort (Shiny)(Salicornia emerici)
Glasswort (Yellow)(Salicornia fragilis)


Salt Tolerance 8         [2 species]
Species more or less permanently inundated in sea water (Zostera spp.)
 Common Name Binomial Name
Eelgrass(Zostera marina)
Eelgrass (Dwarf)(Zostera noltei)


Salt Tolerance 7         [3 species]
Species of lower saltmarsh (Spartina anglica, Suaeda maritima)
 Common Name Binomial Name
Cord-Grass (Common)(Spartina anglica)
Cord-grass (Smooth)(Spartina alterniflora)
Sea-blite (Annual)(Suaeda maritima)


Salt Tolerance 6         [6 species]
Species of mid-level saltmarsh (Atriplex portulacoides, Cochlearia anglica, Limonium vulgare)
 Common Name Binomial Name
Cord-grass (Small)(Spartina maritima)
Sea-purslane(Atriplex portulacoides)
Glasswort (Perennial)(Sarcocornia perennis)
Scurvygrass (English)(Cochlearia anglica)
Sea-Lavender (Common)(Limonium vulgare)
Sea-lavender (Purbeck)(Limonium dodartiforme)


Salt Tolerance 5         [19 species]
Species of the upper edge of saltmarsh, where not inundated by all tides (includes obligate halophytes of cliffs receiving regular salt spray) (Aster tripolium, Crithmum maritimum, Puccinellia maritima, Suaeda vera)
 Common Name Binomial Name
Aster (Sea)(Aster tripolium)
Sea-purslane (Pedunculate)(Atriplex pedunculata)
Flat-sedge (Saltmarsh)(Blysmus rufus)
Rock Samphire(Crithmum maritimum)
Sea Heath(Frankenia laevis)
Golden Samphire(Inula crithmoides)
Wormwood (Sea)(Artemisia maritima)
Sea-blite (Shrubby)(Suaeda vera)
Rush (Sea)(Juncus maritimus)
Sea-lavender (Matted)(Limonium bellidifolium)
Sea-Lavender (Rock)(Limonium binervosum)
Sea-Lavender (Irish)(Limonium recurvum)
Hard Grass(Parapholis strigosa)
Saltmarsh-Grass (Common)(Puccinellia maritima)
Saltmarsh-grass (Stiff)(Puccinellia rupestris)
Glasswort (One-flowered)(Salicornia pusilla)
Sea-Spurrey (Lesser)(Spergularia marina)
Sea-spurrey (Greater)(Spergularia media)
 


Salt Tolerance 4         [28 species]
Species of salt meadows and upper saltmarsh, subject to at most only very occasional tidal inundation (includes species of brackish conditions, i.e. of consistent but low salinity) (Atriplex littoralis, Elytrigia atherica, Glaux maritima, Triglochin maritimum)
 Common Name Binomial Name
Orache (Grass-Leaved)(Atriplex littoralis)
Orache (Long-Stalked)(Atriplex longipes)
Club-Rush (Sea)(Bolboschoenus maritimus)
Sedge (Long-bracted)(Carex extensa)
Goosefoot (Saltmarsh)(Chenopodium chenopodioides)
Scurvygrass (Danish)(Cochlearia danica)
Scurvygrass (Common)(Cochlearia officinalis ssp. officinalis)
Couch (Sea)(Elytrigia atherica)
Milkwort (Sea)(Glaux maritima)
Barley (Sea)(Hordeum marinum)
Rush (Frog)(Juncus ranarius)
Sea-lavender (Broad-leaved)(Limonium auriculae-ursifolium)
Sea-Lavender (Rock)(Limonium binervosum)
Sea-Lavender (Western)(Limonium brittanicum)
Sea-lavender (Purbeck)(Limonium dodartiforme) [TWICER !!!!]
Sea-Lavender (Logan's)(Limonium loganicum)
Sea-lavender (Alderney)(Limonium normannicum)
Sea-Lavender (St. David's)(Limonium paradoxum)
Sea-Lavender (Small)(Limonium parvum)
Sea-Lavender (Giltar)(Limonium transwallianum)
Hard-grass (Curved)(Parapholis incurva)
Saltmarsh-grass (Reflexed)(Puccinellia distans ssp. distans)
Saltmarsh-Grass (Borrer's)(Puccinellia fasciculata)
Water-crowfoot (Brackish)(Ranunculus baudotii)
Tasselweed (Beaked)(Ruppia maritima)
Tasselweed (Spiral)(Ruppia cirrhosa)
Pearlwort (Sea)(Sagina maritima)
Arrow-grass (Sea)(Triglochin maritima)


Salt Tolerance 3         [68 species]
Species most common in coastal sites but regularly present in freshwater or on non-saline soils inland (includes strictly coastal species occurring in sites such as cliff crevices and sand dunes that are not obviously salt-affected) (Cakile maritima, Cochlearia officinalis, Juncus gerardii, Spergularia rupicola)
 Common Name Binomial Name
Foxtail (Bulbous)(Alopecurus bulbosus)
Marram(Ammophila arenaria)
Silky-bent (Dense)(Apera interrupta)
Thrift(Armeria maritima)
Asparagus (Garden)(Asparagus officinalis ssp. prostratus)
Spleenwort (Sea)(Asplenium marinum)
Orache (Babington's)(Atriplex glabriuscula)
Orache (Frosted )(Atriplex laciniata)
Orache (Early)(Atriplex praecox)
Beet(Beta vulgaris)
Cabbage (Wild)(Brassica oleracea)
Hare's-ear (Slender)(Bupleurum tenuissimum)
Rocket (Sea)(Cakile maritima)
Bindweed (Sea)(Calystegia soldanella)
Sedge (Distant)(Carex distans)
Sedge (Divided)(Carex divisa)
Sedge (Dotted)(Carex punctata)
Sedge (Curved)(Carex maritima)
Sedge (Estuarine)(Carex recta)
Hottentot-Fig(Carpobrotus edulis)
Fern-grass (Sea)(Catapodium marinum)
Goosefoot (Oak-leaved)(Chenopodium glaucum)
Scurvygrass (Common)(Cochlearia officinalis)
Kale (Sea)(Crambe maritima)
Dewplant (Purple)(Disphyma crassifolium)
Spike-rush (Dwarf)(Eleocharis parvula)
Spike-rush (Slender)(Eleocharis uniglumis)
Couch (Sand)(Elytrigia juncea)
Stork's-bill (Sea)(Erodium maritimum)
Sea-Holly(Eryngium maritimum)
Spurge (Sea)(Euphorbia paralias)
Spurge (Purple)(Euphorbia peplis)
An Eyebright(Euphrasia heslop-harrisonii)
An Eyebright(Euphrasia tetraquetra)
Fescue (Rush-leaved)(Festuca arenaria)
Fennel(Foeniculum vulgare)
Horned-Poppy (Yellow)(Glaucium flavum)
Sea-Buckthorn(Hippophae rhamnoides)
Sandwort (Sea)(Honckenya peploides)
Rush (Sharp)(Juncus acutus)
Rush (Saltmarsh)(Juncus gerardii)
Lettuce (Least)(Lactuca saligna)
Pea (Sea)(Lathyrus japonicus)
Mallow (Tree)(Malva arborea)
Dittander(Lepidium latifolium)
Lyme-grass(Leymus arenarius)
Lovage (Scots)(Ligusticum scoticum)
Sweet Alison(Lobularia maritima)
Stock (Hoary)(Matthiola incana)
Oysterplant(Mertensia maritima)
Water-Dropwort (Parsley)(Oenanthe lachenalii)
Cottonweed(Otanthus maritimus)
Pink (Childing)(Petrorhagia nanteuilii)
Plantain (Sea)(Plantago maritima)
Knotgrass (Sea)(Polygonum maritimum)
Knotgrass (Ray's)(Polygonum oxyspermum)
Beard-grass (Annual)(Polypogon monspeliensis)
Radish (Sea)(Raphanus raphanistrum ssp. maritimus)
Saltwort (Prickly)(Salsola kali ssp. kali)
Club-rush (Triangular)(Schoenoplectus triqueter)
Squill (Spring)(Scilla verna)
Ragwort (Silver)(Senecio cineraria)
Campion (Sea)(Silene uniflora)
Sea-Spurrey (Rock)(Spergularia rupicola)
Clover (Western)(Trifolium occidentale)
Clover (Sea)(Trifolium squamosum)


Salt Tolerance 2         [28 species]
Species occurring in both saline and non-saline situations, for which saline habitats are not strongly predominant (Atriplex prostrata, Elytrigia repens, Phragmites australis, Rumex crispus)
 Common Name Binomial Name
Marsh-Mallow(Althaea officinalis)
Celery (Wild)(Apium graveolens)
Asparagus (Garden)[Twicer !!!](Asparagus officinalis)
Orache (Common)(Atriplex patula)
Orache (Spear-leaved)(Atriplex prostrata)
Fox-Sedge (False)(Carex otrubae)
Hornwort (Soft)(Ceratophyllum submersum)
Scurvygrass (Common)(Cochlearia officinalis ssp. officinalis)
Carrot(Daucus carota)
Couch (Common)(Elytrigia repens)
Fescue (Red)(Festuca rubra)
Rupturewort (Fringed)(Herniaria ciliolata)
Barley (Foxtail)(Hordeum jubatum)
Melilot (Small)(Melilotus indicus)
Reed (Common)(Phragmites australis)
Buck's-horn Plantain (Buck's-horn)(Plantago coronopus)
Meadow-grass (Spreading)(Poa humilis)
Pondweed (Fennel)(Potamogeton pectinatus)
Silverweed(Potentilla anserina)
Buttercup (Hairy)(Ranunculus sardous)
Celery-Leaved Buttercup (Celery-Leaved)(Ranunculus sceleratus)
Japanese Rose (Japanese)(Rosa rugosa)
Dock (Curled)(Rumex crispus)
Brookweed(Samolus valerandi)
Clover (Strawberry )(Trifolium fragiferum)
Arrow-grass (Marsh)(Triglochin palustris)
Pondweed (Horned)(Zannichellia palustris)


Salt Tolerance 1         [116 species]
Slightly salt-tolerant species, rare to occasional on saline soils but capable of persisting in the present of salt (includes dune and dune-slack species where the ground water is fresh but where some inputs of salt spray are likely) (Calystegia sepium, Chenopodium album, Oenanthe crocata, Sedum anglicum)
 Common Name Binomial Name
Yarrow(Achillea millefolium)
Bent (Creeping)(Agrostis stolonifera)
Garlic (Few-Flowered)(Allium paradoxum)
Foxtail (Marsh)(Alopecurus geniculatus)
Michaelmas-daisy (Narrow-leaved)(Aster lanceolatus)
Michaelmas-Daisy (Common)(Aster novi-belgii x lanceolatus
= A. x salignus
)
Michaelmas-daisy (Confused)(Aster novi-belgii)
Water-starwort (Autumnal)(Callitriche hermaphroditica)
Water-starwort (Blunt-fruited)(Callitriche obtusangula)
Water-starwort (Common)(Callitriche stagnalis)
Bindweed (Hedge)(Calystegia sepium)
Yellow-sedge (Soft-fruited)(Carex oederi)
Yellow-sedge (Long-stalked)(Carex lepidocarpa)
Caraway(Carum carvi)
Whorl-grass(Catabrosa aquatica)
Centaury (Seaside)(Centaurium littorale)
Centaury (Lesser)(Centaurium pulchellum)
Valerian (Red)(Centranthus ruber)
Mouse-Ear (Sea)(Cerastium diffusum)
Snow-in-Summer(Cerastium tomentosum)
Hornwort (Rigid)(Ceratophyllum demersum)
Fat-Hen(Chenopodium album)
Goosefoot (Red)(Chenopodium rubrum)
Hound's-tongue(Cynoglossum officinale)
Marsh-Orchid (Northern)(Dactylorhiza purpurella)
Thorn-Apple(Datura stramonium)
Wall-Rocket (Annual)(Diplotaxis muralis)
Wall-Rocket (Perennial)(Diplotaxis tenuifolia)
Bugloss (Viper's)(Echium vulgare)
Spike-rush (Needle)(Eleocharis acicularis)
Spike-rush (Common)(Eleocharis palustris)
Waterweed (Nuttall's)(Elodea nuttallii)
Wallflower(Erysimum cheiri)
An Eyebright(Euphrasia foulaensis)
An Eyebright(Euphrasia marshallii)
An Eyebright(Euphrasia rotundifolia)
Centaury (Guernsey)(Exaculum pusillum)
Fescue (Breton){Twicer !!!](Festuca armoricana)
Fescue Huon's()(Festuca huonii)
Fescue (Hybrid)(Festuca pratensis x Lolium perenne
= X Schedolium loliaceum
)
Gentian (Field)(Gentianella campestris)
Little-Robin(Geranium purpureum)
Pondweed (Opposite-leaved)(Groenlandia densa)
Mare's-tail(Hippuris vulgaris)
Meadow Barley ()(Hordeum secalinum)
Iris (Yellow)(Iris pseudacorus)
Rush (Jointed)(Juncus articulatus)
Rush (Baltic)(Juncus balticus)
Rush (Toad)(Juncus bufonius)
Rush (Round-fruited)(Juncus compressus)
Rush (Hard)(Juncus inflexus)
Duckweed (Fat)(Lemna gibba)
Hawkbit (Lesser)(Leontodon saxatilis)
Cress(Hoary)(Lepidium draba)
Mudwort (Welsh)(Limosella australis)
Bird's-foot-Trefoil (Common)(Lotus corniculatus)
Bird's-foot-Trefoil (Narrow-leaved)(Lotus tenuis)
Teaplant (Chinese)(Lycium chinense)
SStock (Sea)(Matthiola sinuata)
Naiad (Slender)(Najas flexilis)
Water-Lily (Yellow)(Nuphar lutea)
Water-Dropwort (Hemlock)(Oenanthe crocata)
Restharrow (Small)(Ononis reclinata)
Adder's-tongue (Small)(Ophioglossum azoricum)
Orchid (Loose-Flowered)(Orchis laxiflora)
Pink (Proliferous)(Petrorhagia prolifera)
Parsley (Garden)(Petroselinum crispum)
Canary-grass (Reed)(Phalaris arundinacea)
Cat's-tail (Sand)(Phleum arenarium)
Meadow-grass (Annual)(Poa annua)
Meadow-grass (Smooth)(Poa pratensis)
Pondweed (Red)(Potamogeton alpinus)
Pondweed (Curled)(Potamogeton crispus)
Pondweed (Slender-leaved)(Potamogeton filiformis)
Pondweed (Bright-leaved)(Potamogeton gramineus x perfoliatus
= P. x nitens
)
Pondweed (Perfoliate)(Potamogeton perfoliatus)
Pondweed (Long-stalked)(Potamogeton praelongus)
Pondweed (Lesser)(Potamogeton pusillus)
Primrose (Scottish)(Primula scotica)
Blackthorn(Prunus spinosa)
Allseed(Radiola linoides)
Pearlwort (Knotted)(Sagina nodosa)
Pearlwort (Procumbent)(Sagina procumbens)
Club-rush (Sharp)(Schoenoplectus pungens)
Stonecrop (Biting)(Sedum acre)
Stonecrop (English)(Sedum anglicum)
Orpine(Sedum telephium)
Groundsel (Sticky)(Senecio viscosus)
Thistle (Milk)(Silybum marianum)
Sow-thistle (Perennial)(Sonchus arvensis)
Sow-thistle (Marsh)(Sonchus palustris)
Woundwort (Hybrid)(Stachys sylvatica x palustris
= S. x ambigua
)
Water-Soldier(Stratiotes aloides)
Dandelions(Taraxacum spp)
Germander (Water )(Teucrium scordium)
Hedge-parsley (Knotted)(Torilis nodosa)
Clover (Hare's-foot)(Trifolium arvense)
Clover (Crimson)(Trifolium incarnatum ssp. incarnatum)
Clover (Long-headed)(Trifolium incarnatum ssp. molinerii)
Clover (Rough)(Trifolium scabrum)
Mayweed (Sea)(Tripleurospermum maritimum)
Bulrush (Lesser)(Typha angustifolia)
Yellow-vetch(Vicia lutea)
Pansy (Dwarf)(Viola kitaibeliana)
Fescue (Bearded)(Vulpia ciliata)
Fescue (Dune)(Vulpia fasciculata)


Salt Tolerance 0         [~1605 species]
Plants absent from saline sites; if in coastal situations, only accidental and non-persistent if subjected to saline spray or water (85% of the flora). [N.B. - only this last list of plant names has not been checked for APGIII binomial nomenclature compliance - some may still be named under AGPII names. However, the common names should still be correct...].
 Common Name Binomial Name


SALT TOLERANT SPECIES



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