Family: Daisy & Dandelion [Asteraceae]
toxicity
toxicity?medium
toxicity
toxicity?lowish


Achillea

Acroptilon

Aetheorhiza

Ageratum

Ambrosia

Anacyclus

Anaphalis

Antennaria

Anthemis

Arctium

Arctotheca

Arctotis

Argyranthemum

Arnoseris

Artemisia

Aster

Baccharis

Bellis

Bidens

Brachyglottis

Buphthalmum

Calendula

Callistephus

Calotis

Carduus

Carlina

Carthamus

Cassinia

Catananche

Centaurea

Chamaemelum

Chrysanthemum

Chrysocoma

Cicerbita

Cichorium

Cirsium

Cladanthus

Cnicus

Conyza

Coreopsis

Cosmos

Cotula

Crepis

Cynara

Dahlia

Delairea

Dichrocephala

Dittrichia

Doronicum

Echinops

Erigeron

Eupatorium

Euryops

Felicia

Filago

Gaillardia

Galactites

Galinsoga

Gazania

Geropogon

Glebionis

Gnaphalium

Grindelia

Guizotia

Hedypnois

Helenium

Helianthus

Helichrysum

Heliopsis

Helminthotheca

Hemizonia

Hieracium

Homogyne

Hypochaeris

Inula

Ismelia

Iva

Lactuca

Lapsana

Leontodon

Leucanthemella

Leuzia

Leucanthemum

Liatris

Ligularia

Madia

Mantisalca

Matricaria

Melampodium

Mycelis

Olearia

Oncosiphon

Onopordum

Osteospermum

Pericallis

Petasites

Picris

Pilosella

Plecostachys

Prenanthes

Pulicaria

Rhagadiolus

Rhodanthe

Rudbeckia

Santolina

Sanvitalia

Saussurea

Schkuhria

Scolymus

Scorzonera

Scorzoneroides

Senecio

Serratula

Sigesbeckia

Silybum

Sinacalia

Solidago

Soliva

Sonchus

Spilanthes

Tagetes

Tanacetum

Taraxacum

Telekia

Tephroseris

Tolpis

Tragopogon

Tripleurospermum

Tussilago

Urospermum

Verbesina

Vittadinia

Xanthium

Xeranthemum

The Daisy or 'Daisy & Dandelion' Family were formerly called Compositae, but are now known by the family name of Asteraceae.

The Daisy Family is a very ancient group, thought to have arisen from the now extinct family Calyceraceae about 130 Million years ago in the geological period known as the Cretaceous Period. Species in the Calyceraceae family first arose in Gondwanaland, and were already widely dispersed well before continental drift took a hold and spread them further afield. Fossils from the Calyceraceae family are found in Europe, Africa, Australia and North America.

The Asteraceae Family is an extremely abundant group, comprising 10% of the species of flowering plants, encompassing dandelions, chrysanthemums, marigolds, sun-flowers, ragworts, fleabanes, thistles, wormwoods, cudweeds, groundsels, chamomiles, sow-thistles and many others. The vast majority are herbaceous flowers; there are very few tree-forms amongst them.

Perhaps the most remarkable feature of the Daisy Family, and un-like any other member of the Dicotyledons, is the composition of the flower head. A typical flower head is exemplified by the common daisy: the central yellow part comprises a great many vertical tubes (called discs by botanists!). These are the actual functional flowers themselves, they are fertile. The discs are usually arranged in Fibonacci spirals, but on some species the Fibonacci spirals are not obvious (for instance - on Yarrow - although that may be because there are so few disc-florets that a pattern does not become apparent). Surrounding the central yellow portion are what appear to be white (in Daisy) 'petals' which are actually not petals at all but yet more flowers, this time they are sterile flowers. Botanists call these rays or ray-florets. The rays usually comprise 5 flowers (observe the four notches in the ends of the rays) but some are just 3 flowers (with 2 notches at the ray termination), whilst on Colt's-foot, the ray florets consist of just one flower per floret (zero notches). (In other plants of the daisy family, not all discs are yellow, nor all rays white). No other family of plants has this composite arrangement of sterile and fertile flowers1, thought by some to be the pinnacle of flower evolution. This composite arrangement of the flowers gave rise to the now obsolete term Compositae for this family.

But not all Asteraceae have both disc florets and ray florets, although the vast majority do. A Dandelion flower-head consists entirely of ray florets and lacks disc florets, whilst Tansy, Groundsel, Nodding Bur-marigolds, Hemp-agrimony, Pineapple-weed and a few others consist entirely of disc florets lacking ray florets.

∗1 To contradict the above assertion, Guelder-Rose - which belongs to the Honeysuckle Family Caprifoliaceae) - does have a mix of sterile flowers and fertile flowers.

The overall layout of rayed plants in the asteraceae family is of actinomorphic (radial) symmetry. However, the ray florets themselves individually are zygomorphic (with bi-lateral symmetry), whilst the disc florets individually (with their five triangular 'petals' atop) are actinomorphic.

Simplistically (and for this tomb), the flower-head of rayed Asteraceae plants are actinomorphic, but floral symmetry strictly applies only to individual flowers. The ray florets are zygomorphic and the disc florets are actinomorphic. The zygomorphic nature of the ray florets is most easily seen in Cornflower where the blue trumpet-shaped florets (your Author is led to believe that these are yet more disc-florets, but highly unusual ones) radiate radially outwards like tannoy speakers atop a pole. Lacking obvious or hidden stamens/anthers and stigma/styles these disc-florets are sterile. Cornflower is most unusual in these respects.

Many members of the Asteraceae family have allergenic compounds in their sap called sesquiterpene lactones (of which there are hundreds) that are able to cause contact dermatitis in some susceptible people. Thus:

Dandelion contains the allergen Taraxinic Acid, which may have application in the treatment of leukemia. Dandelions have been known to cause allergic reactions and contact dermatitis due to this toxic component.

Feverfew contains the allergen Parthenolide

Perennial Ragwood (Ambrosia Psilostachya) [not yet linked to] contains the allergen and sesquiterpene lactone Isabelin.

Chamomile [not yet linked to] contains the allergen Nobilin, a Sesquiterpene Lactone.

Annual Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus) contains the allergen Niveusin.

Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa) [not yet linked to] and the Sow-thistles contain the allergen Lactucopicrin. It is also a component of the latex-like sap called Lactucarium obtained from Great Lettuce, which has been used in cough medicines.

Chicory contains Lactucin, a bitter substance and several other Sesquiterpene Lactones within the root as a milky sap.

Indeed, so many and varied are the sesquiterpene lactones in the Daisy Family that one researcher has based a chemical taxonomy on the exact sesquiterpene lactone(s) present in each species.

Certain members of the Daisy family are phototoxic, due to the presence of thiophenes, usually polythiophenes , some with acetylenic triple bonds. These include Globeflower [not yet linked to]Cornflower.

Some members of the Asteraceae family have notoriety in producing the symptoms of hay-fever, in particular the Sneezeweeds (species Helenium), Goldenrods (species Solidago) and Ragweeds (species Ambrosia). Note that Sneezeweed should not be confused with Sneezewort.



[CIRSIUM] Thistles

 

CIRSIUM THISTLES HYBRID CHART (shrunk)
Hybrid Chart: CIRSIUM THISTLES (larger)

The empty dark-brown squares show that there is plenty of opportunity for much more promiscuity between these thistles.

N.B. Due to the symmetrical nature of the chart, each hybrid appears twice.

Neither Yellow Thistle nor Cabbage Thistle have any known hybrids, so they do not appear in the above chart.

Cirsium SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Cirsium creticum)
(Cirsium erisithales) Yellow Thistle
(Cirsium oleraceum) Cabbage Thistle
(Cirsium rivulare)

Thistle (Melancholy). (Cirsium heterophyllum) Photo: © RWD

Thistle (Woolly). (Cirsium eriophorum) Photo: © RWD

Spear Thistle (Cirsium vulgare) Photo: © RWD



[CARDUUS] Thistles

 

[Carduus]
CARDUUS HYBRID CHART
[Carduus]
CARDUUS
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Welted
Thistle

(crispus)
Musk
Thistle

(nutans)
Musk
Thistle

(nutans)
Carduus
×
stangii
Welted
Thistle

(crispus)
Carduus
×
stangii

Text on charts goes here

Carduus SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Carduus acanthoides)
(Carduus macrocephalus)
(Carduus pycnocephalus) Plymouth Thistle
(Carduus tenuiflorus) Slender Thistle
(Carduus thoermeri)


Thistle (Musk). (Carduus nutans) Photo: © RWD

Slender Thistle (Carduus tenuiflorus) Photo: © RWD



[CYNARA] Globe Artichokes

Globe Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) Photo: © RWD



[CARLINA] Carline Thistle

Carline Thistle (Carlina vulgaris) Photo: © RWD



[SILYBUM] Milk-thistle

Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) Photo: © Paula O'Meara



[SONCHUS] Sow-thistles

Corn Sow-thistle. (Sonchus arvensis) Photo: © RWD

Prickly Sow-Thistle (Sonchus asper) Photo: © RWD

Smooth Sow-Thistle (Sonchus oleraceus) Photo: © RWD



[GLEBIONIS] Crown Daisies

Corn Marigold. (Glebionis segetum) Photo: © RWD



[HELIANTHUS] Sunflowers

Perennial Sunflower. (Helianthus × laetiflorus) Photo: © RWD

Annual Sunflower. (Helianthus anuus) Photo: © RWD



[TRAGOPOGON] Goat's-beards

Goat's-beard. (Tragopogon pratensis) Photo: © RWD

Salsify (Tragopogon porrifolius) Photo: © Doug Brooks



[ERIGERON] Fleabanes

Seaside Daisy. (Erigeron glaucus) Photo: © RWD

Mexican Fleabane. (Erigeron karvinskianus) Photo: © RWD

Blue Fleabane. (Erigeron acer) Photo: © RWD



[PILOSELLA (sub-Genus of Hiercium)] Mouse-ear Hawkweeds

 

MOUSE-EAR HAWKWEED HYBRID CHART (shrunk)
Hybrid Chart: MOUSE-EAR HAWKWEED (larger)

Pilosella SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Pilosella aurantiaca subsp. aurantiaca) Fox-and-cubs
(Pilosella aurantiaca subsp. carpathicola) Fox-and-cubs
(Pilosella flagellaris) Shetland Mouse-ear Hawkweed
(Pilosella flagellaris subsp. bicapitata) Shetland Mouse-ear Hawkweed
(Pilosella flagellaris subsp. flagellaris) Shetland Mouse-ear Hawkweed
(Pilosella peleteriana subsp. peleteriana) Shaggy Mouse-ear Hawkweed
(Pilosella peleteriana subsp. subpeleteriana) Shaggy Mouse-ear Hawkweed
(Pilosella peleteriana subsp. tenuiscapa) Shaggy Mouse-ear Hawkweed
(Pilosella praealta) Tall Mouse-ear Hawkweed
(Pilosella praealta subsp. praealta) Tall Mouse-ear Hawkweed
(Pilosella praealta subsp. thaumasia) Tall Mouse-ear Hawkweed

Fox-and-Cubs (Orange Hawkweed).
(Pilosella aurantiaca)
Photo: © RWD



[HIERACIUM] Hawkweeds

There are approximately 260 Hieracium species known. It is a large Geunus.

Hieracium is split up into 15 sub-sections, much the same as Taracacum (Dandelions) species are split into 9 Taraxacum sub-sections.

  • Hieracium section Hieracioides (1 microspecies + 1 ssp)
  • Hieracium section Sabauda (10 microspecies)
  • Hieracium section Foliosa (12 microspecies)
  • Hieracium section Tridentata (26 microspecies)
  • Hieracium section Prenanthoidea (3 microspecies)
  • Hieracium section Alpestria (21 microspecies)
  • Hieracium section Hieracium (93 microspecies)
  • Hieracium section Vulgata (58 microspecies)
  • Hieracium section Stilligera (68 microspecies)
  • Hieracium section Oreada (21 microspecies)
  • Hieracium section Amplexicaulia (3 microspecies)
  • Hieracium section Cerimthoidea (17 microspecies)
  • Hieracium section Andryaloidea (1 microspecies)
  • Hieracium section Subalpina (2 microspecies)
  • Hieracium section Alpina (34 microspecies)
There is also one sub-genus of Hieracium: Pilosella (Mouse-eared Hawkweeds))

Hawkweeds (as well as Brambles (Rubus and Dandelions (Hieracium) all have hundreds of species. They are all apomictic (or agamospermic - asexual reproduction via seeds), capable of the production of viable seeds without self-fertilisation or cross-fertilization and are entirely female in origin. Plants growing from these seeds are clones. What gives rise to the microspecies is very probably micro-mutations in these clones. Any micromutation in the DNA will be multiplied by apoximis into clones of that mutation. This results in a wide spectrum of hybrid microspecies, most looking very similar. Why apoximis results in a plethora of microspecies is that when plants that reproduce by sexual means, the two RNA strands must be self-compatible otherwise they would not result in viable seeds. This pulls sexual reproduction on course, the mutants cannot reproduce unless there are complimentary mutations in the male and female strands of the RNA. (The Author thinks...).

All or most species of Dandelion are hybrids which reproduce asexually - only a handful reproduce by sexual means. Hawthorns (Crataegus), Rowans & Whitebeams (Sorbus), Meadow-grasses (Poa) and Lady's-mantles (Alchemilla) are also apomictic with dozens of very similar hybrid species.

There are 430 species (and climbing after recent discoveries and research) of Hieracium in the UK but in the World Wide World there are over 10,000 (and probably many more still to be differentiated / identified) - this fact reinforces the power of apomixic reproduction in its potential to create thousands of extremely similar microspecies when they are in small isolated niches). Almost all of these 430 odd Hieracium microspecies are endemic to the UK, growing nowhere else in the World. Certainly all those belonging to the section Alpine are endemic to the UK except for just one that does grow elsewhere - Hieracium alpinum (Alpine Hawkweed).

Hieracium alpinum (Hieracium alpinum) Photo: © Peter Andrews

Bald-Leaved Hawkweed (Hieracium calvum) Photo: © Peter Andrews

Hieracium deargicola (Hieracium deargicola) Photo: © Peter Andrews

Hieracium einichense (Hieracium einichense) Photo: © Peter Andrews

Hieracium eximium (Hieracium eximium) Photo: © Peter Andrews

Hieracium graniticola (Hieracium graniticola) Photo: © Peter Andrews

Hieracium grovesii (Hieracium grovesii) Photo: © Peter Andrews

Hieracium macrocarpum (Hieracium macrocarpum) Photo: © Peter Andrews

Hieracium molybdocroum (Hieracium molybdochroum) Photo: © Peter Andrews

Hieracium pentaploideum (Hieracium pentaploideum) Photo: © Peter Andrews

Marigold Hawkweed (Hieracium calenduliflorum) Photo: © Peter Andrews

Remarkable Hawkweed (Hieracium notabile) Photo: © Peter Andrews

Shaggy Hawkweed (Hieracium holosericeum) Photo: © Peter Andrews

Splendid Hawkweed (Hieracium optimum) Photo: © Peter Andrews

Valuable Hawkweed (Hieracium pensum) Photo: © Peter Andrews



[EUPATORIUM] Hemp-agrimony

Hemp-agrimony. (Eupatorium cannabinum) Photo: © RWD



[TANACETUM] Tansies

Feverfew. (Tanacetum parthenium) Photo: © RWD

Tansy. (Tanacetum vulgare) Photo: © RWD



[COTULA] Buttonweeds

Buttonweed (Cotula coronopifolia) Photo: © Roger & Jacquey Newton



[ACHILLEA] Yarrows

Yarrow. (Achillea millefolium) Photo: © RWD

Sneezewort. (Achilla ptarmica) Photo: © RWD

Cottonweed (Achillea maritima) Photo: © RWD



[BELLIS] Daisy

Daisy. (Bellis perennis) Photo: © RWD



[TEPHROSERIS] Fleaworts

Field Fleawort (Tephroseris integrifolia) Photo: © Dawn Nelson



[PULICARIA] Fleabanes

Common Fleabane. (Pulicaria dysenterica) Photo: © RWD



[CONYZA] Fleabanes

Canadian Fleabane. (Conyza canadensis) Photo: © RWD



[LAPSANA] Nipplewort

Nipplewort. (Lapsana communis) Photo: © RWD



[MYCELIS] Wall Lettuce

Wall Lettuce. (Mycelis muralis) Photo: © RWD



[LACTUCA] Lettuces

Russian Lettuce. (Lactuca tatarica) Photo: © RWD

Great Lettuce (Lactuca virosa) Photo: © RWD

Prickly Lettuce (Lactuca serriola) Photo: © RWD



[CICHORIUM] Chicory

Chicory. (Cichorium intybus) Photo: © RWD



[CICERBITA] Blue-sowthistles

Common Blue-Sowthistle. (Cicerbita plumieri) Photo: © RWD



[TUSSILAGO] Colt's-foot

Colt's-foot. (Tussilago farfara) Photo: © RWD



[TARAXACUM] Dandelions

Dandelions (as well as Brambles (Rubus and Hawkweeds (Hieracium) all have hundreds of species. They are all apomictic (or agamospermic - asexual reproduction via seeds), capable of the production of viable seeds without self-fertilisation or cross-fertilization and are entirely female in origin. This results in a wide spectrum of hybrid microspecies, most looking very similar. All or most species of Dandelion are hybrids which reproduce asexually - only a handful reproduce by sexual means. Hawthorns (Cratageous), Rowans & Whitebeams (Sorbus), Meadow-grasses (Poa) and Lady's-mantles (Alchemilla) are also apomictic with dozens of very similar hybrid species.

A Dandelion. (Taraxacum officinale) Photo: © RWD



[GALINSOGA] Gallant-soldiers

Shaggy Soldier. (Galinsoga quadriradiata) Photo: © RWD

Gallant Soldier. (Galinsoga parviflora) Photo: © RWD


[SENECIO] Ragworts

 

RAGWORT HYBRID CHART (shrunk)
Hybrid Chart: RAGWORT (larger)

Senecio SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Senecio cambrensis) Welsh Groundsel
(Senecio doria) Golden Ragwort
(Senecio doronicum) Chamois Ragwort
(Senecio eboracensis) York Radiate Groundsel
(Senecio elegans)
(Senecio glastifolius) Woad-leaved Ragwort
(Senecio grandiflorus) Purple Ragwort
(Senecio inaequidens) Narrow-leaved Ragwort
(Senecio ovatus) Wood Ragwort
(Senecio paludosus) Fen Ragwort
(Senecio pterophorus) Shoddy Ragwort
(Senecio sarracenicus) Broad-leaved Ragwort
(Senecio smithii) Magellan Ragwort
(Senecio vulgaris subsp. denticulatus)

Oxford Ragwort (Senecio squalidus) Photo: © RWD

Marsh Ragwort (Senecio aquaticus) Photo: © RWD

Narrow-Leaved Ragwort (Senecio inaequidens) Photo: © RWD

Silver Ragwort (Senecio cineraria) Photo: © RWD

Sticky Groundsel (Senecio viscosus) Photo: © RWD

Groundsel (Rayed) (Senecio vulgaris) Photo: © RWD



[TELEKIA] Yellow Oxeye

Yellow Oxeye (Telekia speciosa) Photo: © RWD



[LEUCANTHEMUM] Oxeye Daisies

Oxeye Daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) Photo: © RWD

Shasta Daisy (Leucanthemum × superbum ) Photo: © RWD



[INULA] Fleabanes

Elecampane. (Inula helenium) Photo: © David Meacham

Golden Samphire (Inula crithmoides) Photo: © Paula O'Meara

Ploughman's Spikenard (Inula conyzae) Photo: © RWD



[ANTHEMIS] Chamomiles

Corn Chamomile (Anthemis arvensis) Photo: © RWD

Stinking Chamomile (Anthemis cotula) Photo: © RWD



[TRIPLEUROSPERMUM] Mayweeds

Sea Mayweed (Tripleurospermum maritimum) Photo: © RWD



[ANAPHALIS] Pearly Everlasting

Pearly Everlasting (Anaphalis margaritacea) Photo: © RWD



[ANTENNARIA] Mountain Everlasting

Mountain Everlasting (Antennaria dioica) Photo: © Gordon Anderson



[MATRICARIA] Mayweeds

Pineapple Weed (Matricaria discoidea) Photo: © RWD



[SOLIDAGO] Goldenrods

 

[Solidago]
GOLDENROD HYBRID CHART
[Solidago]
GOLDENROD
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Garden
Goldenrod

(canadensis)
Goldenrod
(virgaurea)
Goldenrod
(virgaurea)
Solidago
×
niederederi
Garden
Goldenrod

(canadensis)
Solidago
×
niederederi

Solidago SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Solidago gigantea) Early Goldenrod
(Solidago graminifolia) Grass-leaved Goldenrod
(Solidago odora)
(Solidago rugosa) Rough-stemmed Goldenrod
(Solidago sempervirens) Salt-marsh Goldenrod

Goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea) Photo: © RWD

Canadian Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis) Photo: © RWD



[BIDENS] Bur-Marigolds

London Bur-Marigold (Bidens connata) Photo: © RWD

Trifid Bur-Marigold (Bidens tripartita) Photo: © RWD

Beggarticks (Bidens frondosa Photo: © RWD

Nodding Bur-Marigold (Bidens cernua) Photo: © RWD



[PETASITES] Butturburs

Butterburs (Genera Petasites) used to be grouped under the Tussilago Genus. All contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

Butterbur (Petasites hybridus) Photo: © RWD

Winter Heliotrope (Petasites fragrans) Photo: © Dermot Baxter

White Butterbur (Petasites albus) Photo: © RWD

Giant Butterbur (Petasites japonica) Photo: © RWD



[HELMINTHOTHECA] Oxtongues

Bristly Oxtongue (Helminthotheca echioides) Photo: © RWD



[CREPIS] Hawk's-beards

Beaked Hawk's-beard (Crepis vesicaria) Photo: © RWD

Smooth Hawk's-Beard (Crepis capillaris) Photo: © RWD



[HYPOCHAERIS] Cat's-ears

Cat's-ear (Hypochaeris radicata) Photo: © RWD



[CENTAUREA] Knapweeds

The Centaurea Genus encompasses many plants with thistle-like flowers (but not thistle-like stems or leaves), many of which have 'rays' on the outer edge which consist not of ray-florets (flat 'petals') but very long tubular disc-florets that have five deep clefts at the end, much like as those in Greater Knapweed, although not all are purple. Besides the Knapweeds, these include such plants as the sky-blue Cornflower, Perennial Cornflower and others that are not rayed such as Red Star-thistle, Yellow Star-thistle and Lesser Star-thistle. Mr Clive Stace thinks the genus over-crowded with disparate plants, and that this genus is ripe for splitting into other genera.

Greater Knapweed (Centaurea scabiosa) Photo: © RWD

Common Knapweed (Centaurea nigra) Photo: © RWD

Lesser Knapweed (Centaurea nemoralis) Photo: © RWD

Hybrid Knapweed (Centaurea × gerstlaueri) Photo: © RWD

Giant Knapweed (Centaurea macrocephala) Photo: © George



[SERRATULA] Saw-Worts

Saw-Wort (Serratula tinctoria) Photo: © Phillip Bagshaw

Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) Photo: © RWD

Perennial Cornflower (Centaurea montana) Photo: © RWD

Red Star-Thistle (Centaurea calcitrapa) Photo: © Jim Barton



[CATANANCHE] Blue Cupidone

Blue Cupidone (Catananche caerulea) Photo: © RWD



[LEUZIA]

Cone Knapweed (Leuzia conifera) Photo: © Phil Brew



[DORONICUM] Leopard's-bane

 

[Doronicum]
LEAOPARD'S-BANE HYBRID CHART
[Doronicum]
LEAOPARD'S-BANE
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Eastern
Leopard's-bane

(columnae)
Leopard's-bane
(pardalianches)
Plantain-leaved
Leopard's-bane

(plantagineum)
Plantain-leaved
Leopard's-bane

(plantagineum)
  Willdenow's
Leopard's-bane
Leopard's-bane
(pardalianches)
Doronicum
×
excelsum
Willdenow's
Leopard's-bane
Eastern
Leopard's-bane

(columnae)
Doronicum
×
excelsum
 

Doronicum SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Doronicum doronicum) Chamois Ragwort



[ASTER] Aster

 

[Aster]
MICHAELMAS DAISY HYBRID CHART
[Aster]
MICHAELMAS DAISY
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Glaucus
Michaelmas
Daisy

(laevis)
Narrow-leaved
Michaelmas
Daisy

(lanceolatus)
Confused
Michaelmas
Daisy

(novi-belgii)
Confused
Michaelmas
Daisy

(novi-belgii)
Late
Michaelmas
Daisy
Common
Michaelmas
Daisy
Narrow-leaved
Michaelmas
Daisy

(lanceolatus)
  Common
Michaelmas
Daisy
Glaucus
Michaelmas
Daisy

(laevis)
  Late
Michaelmas
Daisy

Aster SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Aster (alien N American taxa)) Michaelmas Daisy aggregate
(Aster amellus)
(Aster concinnus) Narrow-leaved Smooth-aster
(Aster dumosus)
(Aster linosyris) Goldilocks Aster
(Aster novae-angliae) Hairy Michaelmas Daisy
(Aster puniceus) Red-stalk Aster
(Aster schreberi) Nettle-leaved Michaelmas Daisy
(Aster sedifolius)
(Aster squamatus)
(Aster subulatus)
(Aster tripolium) Sea Aster

Common Michaelmas-Daisy. (Aster ×salignus) Photo: © RWD

Sea Aster (Aster tripolium) Photo: © RWD



[AMBROSIA] Ragweeds

Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) Photo: © Chris Cafferkey



[OLEARIA] Daisy-Bushes

New-Zealand Holly (Olearia macrodonta) Photo: © RWD



[LIGULARIA] Leopardplants

Leopardplant (Ligularia dentata) Photo: © RWD

Tyneside Leopardplant (Ligularia przewalskii) Photo: © RWD



[ECHINOPS] Globe-Thistles

Blue Globe-Thistle (Echinops bannaticus) Photo: © RWD



[CALENDULA] Marigolds

Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Photo: © RWD


[RUDBECKIA] Coneflowers

Coneflower (Bristly) (Rudbeckia hirta) Photo: © RWD

Black-eyed-Susan (Rudbeckia hirta var. angustifolia) Photo: © RWD



[GAILLARDIA] Blanketflowers

Blanketflower (Gaillardia x grandiflora) Photo: © Dawn Nelson



[GNAPHALIUM] Cudweeds

Marsh Cudweed (Gnaphalium sylvaticum) Photo: © RWD



[ARTEMISIA] Mugworts

Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) Photo: © RWD

Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) Photo: © RWD

Shasta Daisy (Leucanthemum × superbum ) Photo: © RWD



[ARCTIUM] Burdocks

Lesser Burdock (Arctium minus) Photo: © RWD

Family: Daisy & Dandelion [Asteraceae]

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