Family: Cabbage [Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)]


Alliaria

Alyssum

Arabidopsis

Arabis

Armoracia

Aubrieta

Aurinia

Barbarea

Berteroa

Brassica

Bunias

Cakile

Calepina

Camelina

Capsella

Cardamine

Carrichtera

Chorispora

Cochlearia

Coincya

Conringia

Crambe

Descurainia

Diplotaxis

Draba

Enarthrocarpus

Erophila

Eruca

Erucaria

Erucastrum

Erysimum

Euclidium

Hesperis

Hirschfeldia

Hornungia

Iberis

Isatis

Lepidium

Lobularia

Lunaria

Malcolmia

Matthiola

Microthlaspi

Moricandia

Myagrum

Nasturtium

Neslia

Noccaea

Pachyphragma

Peltaria

Pseudoturritis

Raphanus

Rapistrum

Rorippa

Sinapis

Sisymbrium

Subularia

Teesdalia

Thelypodium

Thlaspi

Turritis

All plants in the Brassicaceae family have four sepals and four petals, except Narrow-leaver Pepperwort, which is usually petal-less. Most plants in this family have white petals, but some have yellow petals, fewer purple, mauve, lilac or pink. Most have six stamens, but some only 4/2 (Cardamine, Hornungia and Lepidium) whilst other Genera may have 4 long stamens plus two short ones.

Generally, the most reliable indicator of identity between species and Genera of plants belonging to the Cabbage Family are the seeds/pods/fruits: their size, their shape, their poise and their colour. If the fruits can be seen from all angles then there is a much better chance of obtaining a true identification.

The shape and size of the leaves is next and the shape and presence or absence of any lobes or teeth.

THE UV-B SUNSCREEN IN BRASSICACEAE


Sinapoyl Malate is the phenolic ester produced by the phenolic acid and phenylpropanoid Sinapic Acid and Malonic Acid. The Sinapic Acid structure is just shown for information, it does not occur in much quantity in the plants. The Malonic Acid moiety is shown in blue.

It is produced in the leaves of Brassicaceae species, and is close to the surface of the leaves. It acts as a very wide-band absorber of UV-B radiation from the sun, which protects the leaves from sunburn. Remarkably, Sinapoyl Malate is able to absorb over the whole UV-B band (without any gaps) which covers 280 to 315 nm wavelengths which is mostly absorbed by the protective upper atmospheric ozone layer around Earth, but some does leak through, enough to give fair skinned animals sunburn. UV-B damages the DNA within plants.

Other Sinapate esters are also produced in the leaves of Brassica species but these are not as effective UV-B blocks as is Sinapoyl Malate. They were first identified in Thale Cress, but now found to be present in most Brassica species.



[CARDAMINE] Bitter-cresses

 

[Cardamine]
BITTER-CRESS HYBRID CHART
[Cardamine]
BITTER-CRESS
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Wavy
Bitter-cress

(flexuosa)
Hairy
Bitter-cress

(hirsuta)
Cuckooflower
(pratensis)
Cuckooflower
(pratensis)
Cardamine
×
fringsii
 
Hairy
Bitter-cress

(hirsuta)
Cardamine
×
zahlbruckneriana
 
Wavy
Bitter-cress

(flexuosa)
Cardamine
×
zahlbruckneriana
Cardamine
×
fringsii

Cardamine SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Cardamine amara) Large Bitter-cress
(Cardamine bulbifera) Coralroot
(Cardamine chelidonia)
(Cardamine corymbosa) New-Zealand Bitter-cress
(Cardamine heptaphylla) Pinnate Coralroot
(Cardamine impatiens) Narrow-leaved Bitter-cress
(Cardamine quinquefolia)
(Cardamine raphanifolia) Greater Cuckooflower
(Cardamine trifolia) Trefoil Cress

Cuckooflower (Lady's Smock). (Cardamine pratensis) Photo: © RWD

Large Bitter-cress (Cardamine amara) Photo: © RWD

Wavy Bitter-cress (Cardamine flexuosa) Photo: © RWD

Hairy Bitter-cress (Cardamine hirsuta) Photo: © RWD



[RAPHANUS] Radishes

Wild Radish. (Raphanus raphanistrum ssp. raphanistrum) Photo: © RWD

Sea Radish (Raphanus raphanistrum ssp. maritimus) Photo: © RWD



[ARABIS] Rock-cresses

Garden Arabis (Arabis caucasica) Photo: © RWD

Hairy Rock-cress (Arabis hirsuta) Photo: © RWD



[LUNARIA] Honesty

Honesty. (Lunaria annua) Photo: © RWD



[HESPERIS] Dame's-violet

Dame's-Violet. (Hesperis matronalis) Photo: © RWD



[ALLIARIA] Garlic Mustard

Garlic Mustard. (Alliaria petiolata) Photo: © RWD



[CRAMBE] Sea-kale

Sea Kale (Crambe maritima) Photo: © RWD



[LEPIDIUM] Pepperworts

Lesser Swine-Cress (Lepidium didymum) Photo: © RWD

Hoary Cress (Lepidium draba) Photo: © RWD

Dittander (Lepidium latifolium) Photo: © RWD



[CAKILE] Sea Rocket

Sea Rocket (Cakile maritima) Photo: © RWD



[COCHLEARIA] Scurvygrasses

 

[Cochlearia]
SCURVYGRASS HYBRID CHART
[Cochlearia]
SCURVYGRASS
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
English
Scurvygrass

(anglica)
Danish
Scurvygrass

(danica)
Common
Scurvygrass

(officinalis)
Common
Scurvygrass

(officinalis)
Cochlearia
×
hollandica
danica
×
officinalis
Danish
Scurvygrass

(danica)
  danica
×
officinalis
English
Scurvygrass

(anglica)
  Cochlearia
×
hollandica

Cochlearia SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Cochlearia acaulis) Violet Cress
(Cochlearia megalosperma) Tall Scurvygrass
(Cochlearia micacea) Mountain Scurvygrass
(Cochlearia officinalis subsp. officinalis) Common Scurvygrass
(Cochlearia officinalis subsp. scotica) Scottish Scurvygrass
(Cochlearia pyrenaica) Pyrenean Scurvygrass
(Cochlearia pyrenaica subsp. alpina) Pyrenean Scurvygrass
(Cochlearia pyrenaica subsp. pyrenaica) Pyrenean Scurvygrass

Danish Scurvygrass (Cochlearia danica) Photo: © RWD

English Scurvygrass (Cochlearia anglica) Photo: © RWD

Pyrenean Scurvygrass (Cochlearia pyrenaica) Photo: © RWD



[EROPHILA] Whitlowgrasses

Common Whitlowgrass (Erophila verna) Photo: © RWD



[IBERIS] Candytufts

Perennial Candytuft (Iberis sempervirens) Photo: © RWD

Garden Candytuft (Iberis umbellata) Photo: © RWD



[ARABIDOPSIS] Thale-Cresses

Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) Photo: © RWD



[CAPSELLA] Shepherd's-Purses

Shepherd's-Purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) Photo: © RWD



[TEESDALIA] Shepherd's Cress

Shepherd's Cress (Teesdalia nudicaulis) Photo: © Dawn Nelso



[THLASPI] Penny-Cresses

Field Penny-Cress (Thlaspi arvense) Photo: © Simon Melville



[BRASSICA] Cabbages

Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) Photo: © RWD

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea ssp. italica) Photo: © RWD

Kale (Brassica oleraceae cultivars) Photo: © RWD

Oil-Seed Rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera) Photo: © RWD



[SINAPIS] Mustards

Charlock (Sinapis arvensis) Photo: © RWD



[NASTURTIUM] Water-Cresses

Narrow-Fruited Water-cress (Nasturtium microphyllum)
(Formerly: Rorippa microphylla)
Photo: © RWD

Water-cress (Nasturtium officinale)
(Formerly: Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum)
Photo: © RWD



[RORIPPA] Yellow-Cresses

 

[Rorippa]
YELLOW-CRESS HYBRID CHART
[Rorippa]
YELLOW-CRESS
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Greater
Yellow-cress
/
Amphibious
Yellow-cress

(amphibia)
Austrian
Yellow-cress

(austriaca)
Marsh
Yellow-cress

(palustris)
Creeping
Yellow
Cress

(sylvestris)
Creeping
Yellow
Cress

(sylvestris)
Rorippa
×
anceps
Rorippa
×
armoracioides
palustris
×
sylvestris
Marsh
Yellow-cress

(palustris)
Rorippa
×
erythrocaulis
  palustris
×
sylvestris
Austrian
Yellow-cress

(austriaca)
Rorippa
×
hungarica
  Rorippa
×
armoracioides
Greater
Yellow-cress
/
Amphibious
Yellow-cress

(amphibia)
Rorippa
×
hungarica
Rorippa
×
erythrocaulis
Rorippa
×
anceps

Rorippa SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Rorippa islandica) Northern Yellow-cress

Creeping Yellow-Cress (Rorippa sylvestris) Photo: © RWD

Great Yellow-Cress (Rorippa amphibia) Photo: © RWD



[BARBAREA] Winter-cresses

American Winter-cress (Barbarea verna) Photo: © RWD

Winter-cress (Barbarea vulgaris) Photo: © RWD



[MATTHIOLA] Stocks

Sea Stock (Matthiola sinuata) Photo: © Celia Foote



[SUBULARIA] Awlwort

Awlwort (Subularia aquatica) Photo: © RWD



[ARMORACIA] Horse-Radish

Horse-Radish (Armoracia rusticana) Photo: © RWD



[AURINIA] Golden Alison

Golden Alison (Aurinia saxatilis) Photo: © RWD



[LOBULARIA] Sweet Alison

Sweet Alison (Lobularia maritima) Photo: © RWD



[DIPLOTAXIS] Wall-Rockets

Annual Wall-Rocket (Diplotaxis muralis) Photo: © RWD

Perennial Wall-Rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) Photo: © RWD



[COINCYA] Cabbages

Isle of Man Cabbage (Coincya monensis) Photo: © RWD

Kale (Brassica oleraceae cultivars) Photo: © RWD

Family: Cabbage [Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)]

WildFlowerFinder Homepage