Family: Plantain [Plantaginaceae]


Antirrhinum

Callitriche

Chaenorhinum

Cymbalaria

Digitalis

Erinus

Gratiola

Hebe

Hippuris

Kickxia

Linaria

Littorella

Misopates

Parahebe

Plantago

Sibthorpia

Veronica

A new and recent entrant to the Plantain Family is Foxglove, which was formerly allocated to the Foxglove and Figwort (Scrophulariaceae)Family (which sounds sensible, but is apparently now wrong according to taxonomists). But it must be said that Foxglove bears no visual semblance whatsoever to any other member of the Plantain Family, and one cannot even hazard a guess as to what feature(s) taxonomists have found in common between Foxgloves and Plantains.

A great many Figwort Family Genus have moved from the Figwort Family [Scrophulariaceae] to other Families. Many, but not all, have been moved into either the Plantain [Plantaginaceae] or the Broomrape [Orobanchaceae] Families.

The following Genera have moved from the Figwort Family [Scrophulariaceae] into the Plantain Family [Plantaginaceae]:
Antirrhinum, Chaenorrhinum, Cymbalaria, Digitalis, Hebe, Kickxia, Linaria, Misopates and Veronica.

In addition, the Water Starwort Family [Callitrichaceae] has been subsumed into this, the Plantain Family. It contained just one Genus: Callitriche. The Family Name Callitrichaceae has been retained in the AGPII system, albeit empty of Genera! It may be that the family Hippuridaceae has been similarly retained?

Marestail used to be in the Mare's Tail [Hippuridaceae] Family until taxonomists decided that the Plantain Family suited it better. There was just one Genus associated with it: Hippuris.

The Veronica Genus is split up into 10 Sub-Genera: Beccabunga, Pseudolysimachium, Cochilidiosperma, Pellidosperma, Stenocarpon, Pocilla, Pentasepalae, Chamaedrys, Pseudoveronica and Veronica; all having the same Latinesque forename Veronica (V.)

All this re-organization has caused chaos, not least in the book 'New Flora of the British Isles' by Clive Stace where only some of the Genera have been moved into other Families, leaving many others 'as was', particularly in the (now abolished) Veronicaceae, Callitrichaceae and Hippuridaceae ex-families. In the case of Speedwells, Veronicaceae no longer exists, and Speedwells are now in Veroniceae which is a Tribe within the Plantaginaceae family.

The Plantain Family should not be confused with a plant of similar name that looks rather like a banana. The Plantain vegetables (not fruits, as are bananas) belong to the Musaceae Family, and have no representation in the UK.



[PLANTAGO] Plantains

Buck's-horn Plantain. (Plantago coronopus) Photo: © RWD

Sea Plantain. (Plantago maritima) Photo: © RWD

Ribwort Plantain. (Plantago lanceolata) Photo: © RWD

Greater Plantain (Plantago major) Photo: © RWD

Hoary Plantain (Plantago media) Photo: © RWD



[DIGITALIS] Foxgloves

Foxglove [Digitalis purpurea] Photo: © RWD

Straw Foxglove (Digitalis lutea) Photo: © Dawn Nelson



[ERINUS] Fairy foxglove

Fairy Foxglove (Erinus alpinus) Photo: © RWD



[ANTIRRHINUM] Snapdragon

Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) Photo: © RWD

 

[Linaria]
TOADFLAX HYBRID CHART
[Linaria]
TOADFLAX
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Purple
Toadflax

(purpurea)
PaleToadflax
(repens)
Prostrate
Toadflax

(supina)
Common
Toadflax

(vulgaris)
Common
Toadflax

(vulgaris)
  Linaria
×
sepium
 
Prostrate
Toadflax

(supina)
  Linaria
×
cornubiensis
 
PaleToadflax
(repens)
Linaria
×
dominii
Linaria
×
cornubiensis
Linaria
×
sepium
Purple
Toadflax

(purpurea)
Linaria
×
dominii
   

Linaria SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Linaria alpina)
(Linaria arenaria) Sand Toadflax
(Linaria bipartita)
(Linaria chalepensis)
(Linaria dalmatica) Balkan Toadflax
(Linaria maroccana) Annual Toadflax
(Linaria pelisseriana) Jersey Toadflax
(Linaria triornithophora)



[LINAREA] Toadflaxes

Purple Toadflax. Linarea purpurea Photo: © RWD

Common Toadflax. (Linarea vulgaris) Photo: © RWD

Pale Toadflax (Linaria repens) Photo: © RWD

Annual Toadflax (Linaria maroccana) Photo: © RWD



[CULTIVAR]

Canon Went (a Toadflax Cultivar) Photo: © RWD



[VERONICA] Speedwells

A group of herbaceous annuals and perennials, or evergreen shrubs. Sometimes woody at the base. The lower leaves are opposite, the upper ones sometimes alternate.

The flowers are zygomorphic, having bi-lateral symmetry. The flowers are solitary, and either grow in the leaf axils or in terminal or axillary racemes. They have four petals, with the top petal actually being a fusion of two petals, hence it is the widest of the four. The bottom petal is the narrowest of the four. They have but two stamens usually protruding.

 

SPEEDWELL HYBRID CHART (shrunk)
Hybrid Chart: SPEEDWELL (larger)

Hedge Veronica (Veronica × franciscana), being the hybrid between Veronica elliptica and Veronica speciosa cannot be shown on the Hybrid chart because neither parent is native to the UK, although the sibling Hedge Veronica does occur wild in the UK as evidenced by the  Hedge Veronica BSBI Distribution Map.

Veronica SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Veronica acinifolia) French Speedwell
(Veronica agrestis) Green Field-speedwell
(Veronica alpina) Alpine Speedwell
(Veronica arvensis) Wall Speedwell
(Veronica austriaca) Large Speedwell
(Veronica barkeri) Barker's Hebe
(Veronica beccabunga) Brooklime
(Veronica brachysiphon) Hooker's Hebe
(Veronica chamaedrys) Germander Speedwell
aka Birdseye Speedwell
(Veronica crista-galli) Crested Field-speedwell
(Veronica cymbalaria) Pale Speedwell
(Veronica dieffenbachii) Dieffenbach's Hebe
(Veronica filiformis) Slender Speedwell
(Veronica fruticans) Rock Speedwell
(Veronica gentianoides)
(Veronica grisebachii)
(Veronica hederifolia) agg.
(Veronica hederifolia
subsp. hederifolia)
Ivy-leaved Speedwell
(Veronica hederifolia
subsp. lucorum)
Ivy-leaved Speedwell
(Veronica montana) Wood Speedwell
(Veronica officinalis) Heath Speedwell
aka Common Speedwell
(Veronica paniculata)
(Veronica peregrina) American Speedwell
(Veronica persica) Common Field-speedwell
aka Buxbaum's Speedwell
(Veronica pinguifolia)
(Veronica polita) Grey Field-speedwell
(Veronica praecox) Breckland Speedwell
(Veronica repens) Corsican Speedwell
(Veronica scutellata) Marsh Speedwell
(Veronica serpyllifolia) Thyme-leaved Speedwell
(Veronica serpyllifolia
subsp. humifusa)
Thyme-leaved Speedwell
(Veronica serpyllifolia
subsp. serpyllifolia)
Thyme-leaved Speedwell
(Veronica triphyllos) Fingered Speedwell
(Veronica verna) Spring Speedwell
(Veronica x kirkii) cultivar

Brooklime (Veronica beccabunga) Photo: © RWD

Blue Water-Speedwell (Veronica anagallis-aquatica) Photo: © RWD

Spiked Speedwell (Veronica spicata) Photo: © RWD

Garden × Spiked Speedwell (Veronica spicata × longifolia) Photo: © RWD

Ivy-Leaved Speedwell Veronica hederifolia ssp. lucorum Photo: © RWD

Heath Speedwell (Veronica officinalis) Photo: © RWD

Slender Speedwell (Veronica filiformis) Photo: © RWD

Wood Speedwell (Veronica montana) Photo: © RWD

Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys) Photo: © RWD

Wall Speedwell (Veronica arvensis) Photo: © RWD



[HIPPURIS] Mare's-tail

Marestail. (Hippuris vulgaris) Photo: © RWD

Family: Plantain [Plantaginaceae]

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