Family: Grasses [Poaceae]


Achnatherum

Aegilops

Agropyron

Agrostis

Aira

Alopecurus

Ammophila

Anemanthele

Anisantha

Anthoxanthum

Apera

Arrhenatherum

Avena

Avenula

Beckmannia

Brachiaria

Brachypodium

Briza

Bromopsis

Bromus

Calamagrostis

Catabrosa

Catapodium

Cenchrus

Ceratochloa

Chasmanthium

Chimonobambusa

Chloris

Cortaderia

Corynephorus

Crithopsis

Cynodon

Cynosurus

Dactylis

Dactyloctenium

Danthonia

Deschampsia

Digitaria

Echinochloa

Ehrharta

Eleusine

Elymus

Elytrigia

Enneapogon

Eragrostis

Eremopyrum

Eriochloa

Fargesia

Festuca

Gastridium

Gaudinia

Glyceria

Hainardia

Hierochloe

Holcus

Hordelymus

Hordeum

Koeleria

Lagurus

Lamarckia

Leersia

Leptochloa

Leymus

Lolium

Melica

Mibora

Milium

Miscanthus

Molinia

Nassella

Nardus

Oryzopsis

Panicum

Parapholis

Paspalum

Pennisetum

Phalaris

Phleum

Phragmites

Phyllostachys

Piptochaetium

Pleioblastus

Poa

Polypogon

Pseudosasa

Psilurus

Puccinellia

Rostraria

Rytidosperma

Sasa

Sasaella

Schedonorus

Schismus

Secale

Semiarundinaria

Sesleria

Setaria

Snowdenia

Sorghum

Spartina

Sporobolus

Stipa

Taeniatherum

Tragus

Triplachne

Trisetum

Triticum

Urochloa

Vulpia

Yushania

Zea

Zizania



[CYNOSURUS] Dog's-Tails

Crested Dogstail (Cynosurus cristatus) Photo: © RWD



[ELYTRIGIA] Couch-Grasses

 

[Elytrigia]
COUCH GRASS HYBRID CHART
[Elytrigia]
COUCH
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Sea
Couch

(atherica)
Sand
Couch

(juncea)
Common
Couch

(repens)
Common
Couch

(repens)
Elytrigia
×
drucei
Elytrigia
×
laxa
Sand
Couch

(juncea)
Elytrigia
×
acuta
Elytrigia
×
laxa
Sea
Couch

(atherica)
Elytrigia
×
acuta
Elytrigia
×
drucei

Elytrigia SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Elytrigia campestris) Neglected Couch

Sand Couch (Elytrigia juncea) Photo: © RWD



[SPARTINA] Cord-Grasses

Common Cord-Grass (Spartina anglica) Photo: © RWD



[DESCHAMPSIA] Hair-Grasses

Wavy Hair-Grass (Deschampsia flexuosa) Photo: © RWD



[MOLINIA] Purple Moor-Grass

Purple Moor-Grass (Molinia caerula) Photo: © RWD



[ZEA] Maize

Maize (Zea mays) Photo: © RWD



[AGROSTIS] Bent

 

[Agrostis]
BENT HYBRID CHART
[Agrostis]
BENT
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Common
Bent

(capillaris)
Highland
Bent

(castellana)
Black
Bent

(gigantea)
Creeping
Bent

(stolonifera)
Brown
Bent

(vinealis)
Brown
Bent

(vinealis)
capillaris
×
vinealis
    stolonifera
×
vinealis
Creeping
Bent

(stolonifera)
Agrostis
×
murbeckii
  gigantea
×
stolonifera
stolonifera
×
vinealis
Black
Bent

(gigantea)
Agrostis
×
bjoerkmanii
  gigantea
×
stolonifera
 
Highland
Bent

(castellana)
Agrostis
×
fouilladeana
     
Common
Bent

(capillaris)
Agrostis
×
fouilladeana
Agrostis
×
bjoerkmanii
Agrostis
×
murbeckii
capillaris
×
vinealis

Agrostis SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Agrostis avenacea) Blown-grass
(Agrostis canina) Velvet Bent
(Agrostis canina sens. lat.) Common Bent
(Agrostis curtisii) Bristle Bent
(Agrostis eriantha)
(Agrostis exarata) Spike Bent
(Agrostis hyemalis) Small Bent
(Agrostis lachnantha) African Bent
(Agrostis scabra) Rough Bent
(Agrostis argentea)



[SCHEDONORUS] Tall Fescue

 

[Schedonorus]
TALL FESCUE HYBRID CHART
[Schedonorus]
TALL FESCUE
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Tall
Fescue

(arundinaceus)
Giant
Fescue

(giganteus)
Meadow
Fescue

(pratensis)
Meadow
Fescue

(pratensis)
Schedonorus
×
aschersonianus
Schedonorus
×
schlickumii
Giant
Fescue

(giganteus)
Schedonorus
×
fleischeri
Schedonorus
×
schlickumii
Tall
Fescue

(arundinaceus)
Schedonorus
×
fleischeri
Schedonorus
×
aschersonianus

There are no species lacking hybrids, all three species hybridise with each other.



[BROMUS] Brome

 

[Bromus]
BROME HYBRID CHART
[Bromus]
BROME
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Meadow
Brome

(commutatus)
Soft-brome
(hordeaceus)
Slender
Soft
Brome

(lepidus)
Smooth
Brome

(racemosus)
Smooth
Brome

(racemosus)
commutatus
×
racemosus
   
Slender
Soft
Brome

(lepidus)
  Lesser
Soft-brome
 
Soft-brome
(hordeaceus)
  Lesser
Soft-brome
 
Meadow
Brome

(commutatus)
    commutatus
×
racemosus

Bromus SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Bromus alopecuros) Weedy Brome
(Bromus arduennensis)
(Bromus arvensis) Field Brome
(Bromus briziformis) Rattlesnake Brome
(Bromus hordeaceus subsp. ferronii) Soft Brome
(Bromus hordeaceus subsp. molliformis) Soft Brome
(Bromus hordeaceus subsp. thominei) Soft Brome
(Bromus intermedius)
(Bromus interruptus) Interrupted Brome
(Bromus japonicus) Thunberg's Brome
(Bromus lanceolatus) Large-headed Brome
(Bromus pseudosecalinus) Smith's Brome
(Bromus scoparius) Broom Brome
(Bromus secalinus) Rye Brome
(Bromus squarrosus) Corn Brome



[ALOPECURU] Foxtails

 

[Alopecurus]
FOXTAIL HYBRID CHART
[Alopecurus]
FOXTAIL
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Orange
Foxtail

(aequalis)
Bulbous
Foxtail

(bulbosus)
Marsh
Foxtail

(geniculatus)
Meadow
Foxtail

(pratensis)
Meadow
Foxtail

(pratensis)
    Alopecurus
×
brachystylus
Marsh
Foxtail

(geniculatus)
Alopecurus
×
haussknech-
tianus
Alopecurus
×
plettkei
Alopecurus
×
brachystylus
Bulbous
Foxtail

(bulbosus)
  Alopecurus
×
plettkei
 
Orange
Foxtail

(aequalis)
  Alopecurus
×
haussknech-
tianus
 

Alopecurus SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Alopecurus magellanicus) Alpine Foxtail
(Alopecurus myosuroides) Black-grass
(Alopecurus utriculatus)



[POA] Meadow-grasses

Dandelions (as well as Brambles (Rubus, Hawkweeds (Hieracium) all have hundreds of species. They are all apomictic (or agamospermic - asexual reproduction via seeds), capable of the production of viable seeds without self-fertilisation or cross-fertilisation and are entirely female in origin. Plants growing from these seeds are clones. This process results in a wide spectrum of hybrid microspecies, most looking very similar. All or most species of Dandelion are hybrids which reproduce asexually - only a handful reproduce by sexual means. Hawthorns (Cratageous), Rowans & Whitebeams (Sorbus), Meadow-grasses (Poa) and Lady's-mantles (Alchemilla) are also apomictic with dozens of very similar hybrid species.

 

[Poa]
MEADOWGRASS HYBRID CHART
[Poa]
MEADOWGRASS
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Alpine
Meadow-
grass

(alpina)
Annual
Meadow-
grass

(annua)
Wavy
Meadow-
grass

(flexuosa)
Early
Meadow-
grass

(infirma)
Early
Meadow-grass

(infirma)
  annua
×
infirma
 
Wavy
Meadow-grass

(flexuosa)
Poa
×
jemtlandica
   
Annual
Meadow-grass

(annua)
    annua
×
infirma
Alpine
Meadow-grass

(alpina)
  Poa
×
jemtlandica
 

Poa SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Poa angustifolia) Narrow-leaved Meadow-grass
(Poa bulbosa) Bulbous Meadow-grass
(Poa chaixii) Broad-leaved Meadow-grass
(Poa compressa) Flattened Meadow-grass
(Poa flabellata) Tussac-grass
(Poa glauca) Glaucous Meadow-grass
(Poa humilis) Spreading Meadow-grass
(Poa imbecilla)
(Poa nemoralis) Wood Meadow-grass
(Poa palustris) Swamp Meadow-grass
(Poa pratensis sens. lat.) Smooth Meadow-grass
(Poa pratensis sens. str.) sens. str.
(Poa trivialis) Rough Meadow-grass



[GLYCERIA] Sweet-grasses

 

[Glyceria]
SWEET-GRASS HYBRID CHART
[Glyceria]
SWEET-GRASS
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Small
Sweet-grass

(declinata)
Floating
Sweet-grass

(fluitans)
Plicate
Sweet-grass

(notata)
Plicate
Sweet-grass

(notata)
  Hybrid
Sweet-grass
Floating
Sweet-grass

(fluitans)
declinata
×
fluitans
Hybrid
Sweet-grass
Small
Sweet-grass

(declinata)
declinata
×
fluitans
 

Glyceria SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Glyceria maxima) Reed Sweet-grass



[PUCCINELLIA] Saltmarsh-grasses

 

[Puccinellia]
SALTMARSH-GRASS HYBRID CHART
[Puccinellia]
SALTMARSH-
GRASS
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Reflexed
Saltmarsh-
grass

(distans)
Borrer's
Saltmarsh-
grass

(fasciculata)
Common
Saltmarsh-
grass

(maritima)
Stiff
Saltmarsh-
grass

(rupestris)
Stiff
Saltmarsh-
grass

(rupestris)
Puccinellia
×
pannonica
  Puccinellia
×
krusemaniana
Common
Saltmarsh-
grass

(maritima)
Puccinellia
×
hybrida
  Puccinellia
×
krusemaniana
Borrer's
Saltmarsh-
grass

(fasciculata)
distans
×
fasciculata
   
Reflexed
Saltmarsh-
grass

(distans)
distans
×
fasciculata
Puccinellia
×
hybrida
Puccinellia
×
pannonica

Puccinellia SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Puccinellia distans subsp. borealis) Reflexed Saltmarsh- grass
(Puccinellia festuciformis)

Borrer's Saltmarsh-Grass (Puccinellia fasciculata) Photo: © RWD

Common Saltmarsh-Grass (Puccinellia maritima) Photo: © RWD



[LOLIUM] Ryegrasses

 

[Lolium]
RYEGRASS HYBRID CHART
[Lolium]
RYEGRASS
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Italian
Rye-grass

(multiflorum)
Perennial
Rye-grass

(perenne)
Mediterranean
Rye-grass

(rigidum)
Darnell
(temulentum)
Darnell
(temulentum)
multiflorum
×
temulentum
  rigidum
×
temulentum
Mediterranean
Rye-grass

(rigidum)
multiflorum
×
rigidum
  rigidum
×
temulentum
Perennial
Rye-grass

(perenne)
Lolium
×
boucheanum
   
Italian
Rye-grass

(multiflorum)
Lolium
×
boucheanum
multiflorum
×
rigidum
multiflorum
×
temulentum

In addition to the above hybrids, there are two inter-Genus hybrids with the Festuca Genus, or Perennial Tufted Grasses (which are closely related to the Ryegrasses). The two hybrids are:
Festuca rubra × Lolium perenne (X Festulolium frederici)
Festuca arundinacea × Lolium multiflorum
But only the second still has any native occurrence in the UK, the first not having been seen since the 1960's (and then only in Cornwall).

Lolium SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Lolium persicum)
(Lolium remotum) Flaxfield Rye-grass



[SESLERIA] Blue Moor-Grass

Blue Moor-Grass (Sesleria caerulea) Photo: © RWD



[LAGURUS] Hair's-Tail

Hare's-Tail Grass (Lagurus ovatus) Photo: © RWD



[FESTUCA] Fescues

 

[Festuca]
FESCUE HYBRID CHART
[Festuca]
FESCUE
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Fine-leaved
Sheep's-fescue

(filiformis)
Sheep's
Fescue

(ovina)
Viviparous
Sheep's-fescue

(vivipara)
Viviparous
Sheep's-fescue

(vivipara)
  ovina
×
vivipara
Sheep's
Fescue

(ovina)
filiformis
×
ovina
ovina
×
vivipara
Fine-leaved
Sheep's-fescue

(filiformis)
filiformis
×
ovina
 

The genus Fescue also has forms two inter-genus hybrids with the Vulpia genus which are not listed here: Festuca rubra × Vulpia bromoides and Festuca rubra × Vulpia myuros. Vulpia is sometimes considered a subset of Festuca as a result.

Moreover, Festuca forms one cross-genus hybrid with Lolium (Ryegrasses), the result of which is called X Festulolium frederici (Festuca rubra × Lolium perenne).

Oh what a tangled life taxonomists inhabit.

Festuca SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Festuca altissima) Wood Fescue
(Festuca arenaria) Rush-leaved Fescue
(Festuca armoricana) Breton Fescue
(Festuca brevipila) Hard Fescue
(Festuca gautieri) Spiky Fescue
(Festuca heterophylla) Various-leaved Fescue
(Festuca huonii) Huon's Fescue
(Festuca lemanii) Confused Fescue
(Festuca longifolia) Blue Fescue
(Festuca ovina agg.) agg.
(Festuca ovina subsp. hirtula) Sheep's-fescue
(Festuca ovina subsp. ophioliticola) Sheep's-fescue
(Festuca ovina subsp. ovina) Sheep's-fescue
(Festuca rubra agg.) agg.
(Festuca rubra subsp. arctica) Red Fescue
(Festuca rubra subsp. commutata) Chewing's Fescue
(Festuca rubra subsp. juncea) Red Fescue
(Festuca rubra subsp. litoralis) Red Fescue
(Festuca rubra subsp. megastachys) Red Fescue
(Festuca rubra subsp. rubra) Red Fescue
(Festuca rubra subsp. scotica) Red Fescue



[HORDEUM] Grasses

Two-Row Barley (Hordeum distichon) Photo: © RWD



[TRITICUM] Grasses

Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Photo: © RWD



[BRIZA] Quaking-Grasses

The differences between the three Quaking-grasses in the UK:

  • Greater Quaking-grass (Briza major) Height 75cm, florets: <15, 8-25mm, light-green with dark-purple top
  • Quaking-grass (Briza maxima) Height 75cm, florets: >20, 4-7mmm, dark-purple + light-green
  • Lesser Quaking-grass (Briza minor) Height 60cm, florets :>20, 2.5-5mm, light-green
All three rattle inside when shaken because of the loose seeds within the ripe fruit.

Greater Quaking-Grass (Briza maxima) Photo: © RWD

Quaking-Grass (Briza media) Photo: © RWD



[PARAPHOLIS] Hard-Grasses

Hard Grass (Parapholis strigosa) Photo: © RWD

Family: Grasses [Poaceae]

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