Family: Rose [Rosaceae]


Acaena

Agrimonia

Alchemilla

Amelanchier

Aphanes

Aremonia

Argentina

Aronia

Aruncus

Chaenomeles

Comarum

Cotoneaster

Crataegus

Cydonia

Dryas

Eriobotrya

Filipendula

Fragaria

Geum

Holodiscus

Kerria

Malus

Margyricarpus

Mespilus

Oemleria

Poterium

Photinia

Physocarpus

Potentilla

Prunus

Pyracantha

Pyrus

Raphiolepis

Rosa

Rubus

Sanguisorba

Sibbaldia

Sorbaria

Sorbus

Spiraea
The Rose Family is fairly diverse, encompassing not only roses, brambles and sweet briars, but many of the 'berries' such as strawberry, raspberry, loganberry, etc. But it also includes meadowsweet, avens, agrimony, burnets, lady's-mantles, pirri-pirri-burs plus the cinquefoils and tormentils.

The latter form the Tormentil Complex, being hybrids between Tormentils and Cinquefoils. There are only four known hybrids, and only one of those possesses a common name, Hybrid Cinquefoil.

Members of the Rose Family usually have very tough stems, spread like a bat out of hell, and are very difficult to eradicate. Brambles and Wood Avens are good examples.



[PHOTINIA] Stranvaesias

Red Robin (Photinia x fraseri) Photo: © RWD


[ALCHEMILLA] Lady's-mantles

Dandelions [as well as Brambles (Rubus), Hawkweeds (Hieracium), Hawthorns (Cratageous), Rowans & Whitebeams (Sorbus), Meadow-grasses (Poa) and Lady's-mantles (Alchemilla) ] all have dozens or hundreds of species. They are all apomictic (or agamospermic - asexual reproduction via seeds), capable of the production of viable seeds without self-fertilization or cross-fertilization and are entirely female in origin. Plants growing from these seeds are clones. This process results in a wide spectrum of hybrid microspecies, most looking very similar. All or most species of Lady's Mantles are hybrids which reproduce asexually - only a handful reproduce by sexual means.

Alpine Lady's-Mantle (Alchemilla alpina) Photo: © RWD

Smooth Lady's-Mantle (Alchemilla glabra) Photo: © RWD

Pale Lady's-Mantle (Alchemilla xanthochlora) Photo: © RWD



[AGRIMONIA] Agrimonies

Agrimony. (Agrimonia eupatoria) Photo: © RWD



[SANGUISORBA] Burnets

Great Burnet. (Sanguisorba officinalis) Photo: © RWD

Fodder Burnet. (Sanguisorba minor ssp. muricata) Photo: © RWD

Salad Burnet. (Sanguisorba minor ssp. minor) Photo: © RWD



[ACAENA] Pirri-pirri-burs

Pirri-pirri-Bur (Acaena novae-zelandiae) Photo: © RWD



[POTENTILLA] Cinquefoils

 

[Potentilla]
TORMENTIL HYBRID CHART
[Potentilla]
TORMENTIL
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Trailing
Tormentil

(anglica)
Tormentil
(erecta)
Sulphur
Cinquefoil

(recta)
Creeping
Cinquefoil

(reptans)
Creeping
Cinquefoil

(reptans)
Hybrid
Cinquefoil
Potentilla
×
italica
Potentilla
×
italica
Sulphur
Cinquefoil

(recta)
Potentilla
×
suberecta
Potentilla
×
suberecta
Potentilla
×
italica
Tormentil
(erecta)
Potentilla
×
suberecta
Potentilla
×
suberecta
Potentilla
×
italica
Trailing
Tormentil

(anglica)
Potentilla
×
suberecta
Potentilla
×
suberecta
Hybrid
Cinquefoil

OTHER POTENTILLAS
There are a number of other Tormentils and Cinqufoils with no known hybrids. These are listed here: Hoary Cinquefoil, Shrubby Cinquefoil, Grey Cinquefoil, Russian Cinquefoil, Mountain Cinquefoil, Ternate-Leaved Cinquefoil, Marsh Cinquefoil, Sulphur Cinquefoil, Brook Cinquefoil and Rock Cinquefoil. Most of these are unlikely to get any other entries in this tome, for, with the exception of one or two, they must appear very similar to anyone but an expert.

Potentilla SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Potentilla anserina) Silverweed
(Potentilla argentea) Hoary Cinquefoil
(Potentilla argyrophylla)
(Potentilla brauniana)
(Potentilla crantzii) Alpine Cinquefoil
(Potentilla erecta subsp. strictissima) Tormentil
(Potentilla fruticosa) Shrubby Cinquefoil
(Potentilla hirta)
(Potentilla inclinata) Grey Cinquefoil
(Potentilla indica) Yellow-flowered Strawberry
(Potentilla intermedia) Russian Cinquefoil
(Potentilla montana) Mountain Cinquefoil
(Potentilla nepalensis)
(Potentilla norvegica) Ternate-leaved Cinquefoil
(Potentilla rivalis) Brook Cinquefoil
(Potentilla rupestris) Rock Cinquefoil
(Potentilla sterilis) Barren Strawberry
(Potentilla supina)
(Potentilla tabernaemontani) Spring Cinquefoil

Tormentil. (Potentilla erecta) Photo: © RWD

Creeping Cinquefoil (Potentilla reptans) Photo: © Lesley Crawshaw

Sulphur Cinquefoil (Potentilla recta) Photo: © RWD

Barren Strawberry (Potentilla sterilis) Photo: © RWD



[COMARUM] Marsh Cinquefoil

Marsh Cinquefoil. (Comarum palustre) Photo: © Phil And Ann Farrer



[ARGENTINA] Silverweed

Silverweed. (Argentina anserina) Photo: © RWD



[ARUNCUS] Buck's-Beard

Buck's-Beard (Aruncus dioicus) Photo: © RWD



[FILIPENDULA] Meadowsweets

Meadowsweet. (Filipendula ulmaria) Photo: © RWD

Dropwort (Filipendula vulgaris) Photo: © RWD



[GEUM] Avens

Water Avens. (Geum rivale) Photo: © RWD

Hybrid Geum (Geum × intermedium) Photo: © RWD

Wood Avens. (Geum urbanum) Photo: © RWD

Large-Leaved Avens (Geum macrophyllum) Photo: © RWD



[DRYAS] Mountain Avens

Mountain Avens (Dryas octopetala) Photo: © Dawn Nelson



[RUBUS] Brambles

Brambles (as well as Dandelions (Taraxacum and Hawkweeds (Hieracium) all have hundreds of species. They are all apomictic (or agamospermic - asexual reproduction via seeds), capable of the production of viable seeds without self-fertilisation or cross-fertilisation and are entirely female in origin. This results in a wide spectrum of hybrid microspecies, most looking very similar. All or most species of Dandelion are hybrids which reproduce asexually with only a handful reproducing by sexual means. Hawthorns (Cratageous), Rowans & Whitebeams (Sorbus), Meadow-grasses (Poa) ara also apomictic with dozens of very similar hybrid species.

The rising carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere is reducing the number of pores in the leaves of some plants. The pores are means by which the plant obtains the necessary carbon dioxide, and if there is more carbon dioxide in the air, it needs fewer pores. But the pores unwittingly also allow water vapour to escape, so if a plant can get enough CO2 with fewer pores, the better water retention it has.

Bramble leaves are able to take advantage of increasing atmospheric CO2 and grow more vigorously, with runners sometimes now growing 30 feet in length in a month much to the chagrin of gardeners.

 

RUBUS HYBRID CHART (shrunk)
Hybrid Chart: RUBUS (larger)

Dewberry. (Rubus caesius) Photo: © RWD

Cloudberry. (Rubus chamaemorus) Photo: © RWD

Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) Photo: © RWD

Chinese Bramble (Rubus tricolor) Photo: © RWD

Salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis) Photo: © BastiaanBrak

Himalayan Giant (Rubus armeniacus) Photo: © RWD


[PRUNUS] Cherries

Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) Photo: © RWD

Wild Cherry (Prunus avium) Photo: © RWD

Bird Cherry (Prunus padus) Photo: © RWD

Portugal Laurel (Prunus lusitanica) Photo: © RWD



[AMELANCHIER] Juneberry

Snowy Mespil (Amelanchier ovalis) Photo: © RWD



[SPIRAEA] Brideworts

 

[Spiraea]
BRIDEWORT HYBRID CHART
[Spiraea]
BRIDEWORT
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Pale
Bridewort

(alba)
Steeplebush
(douglasii)
Bridewort
(salicifolia)
Bridewort
(salicifolia)
Intermediate
Bridewort
Confused
Bridewort
Steeplebush
(douglasii)
Billiard's
Bridewort
Confused
Bridewort
Pale
Bridewort

(alba)
Billiard's
Bridewort
Intermediate
Bridewort

There are two hybrids which cannot be placed in the above chart because one or more of their parents are not native to the UK, namely:
S. × multiflora × thunbergii (Spiraea × arguta) [Bridal Spray/Bridal Wreath]
S. cantoniensis × trilobata (Spiraea × vanhouttei) [Bridal Wreath]
Both are popular cultivars planted as garden plants, and both sometimes share the same common name 'Bridal Wreath'. Both have panicles of large white flowers.

Spiraea × arguta is a cross between S. × multiflora (which is itself a hybrid between S. crenata and S. hypericifolia) and S. thunbergii, hence the two '×'s in its expanded 'latin' name.

Spiraea SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Spiraea agg.) Bridewort aggregate
(Spiraea canescens) Himalayan Spiraea
(Spiraea chamaedryfolia) Elm-leaved Spiraea
(Spiraea douglasii subsp. douglasii) Steeplebush
(Spiraea douglasii subsp. menziesii) Steeplebush
(Spiraea japonica) Japanese Spiraea
(Spiraea media) Bridal-spray
(Spiraea tomentosa) Hardhack

Steeplebush (Spiraea douglasii) Photo: © RWD

Willow-Leaved Bridewort (Spiraea × pseudosalicifolia) Photo: © RWD

Pale Bridewort (Spiraea alba) Photo: © RWD



[APHANES] Parsley-Pierts

Parsley-Piert (Aphanes arvensis) Photo: © RWD



[FRAGARIA] Strawberries

Wild Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Photo: © RWD

Garden Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) Photo: © RWD



[ROSA] Roses

 

ROSA HYBRID CHART (shrunk)
Hybrid Chart: Rose (larger)

Rosa SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Rosa 'Hollandica') Dutch Rose
(Rosa agrestis x tomentosa) A rose hybrid#3
(Rosa blanda) [no name#7]
(Rosa caesia subsp. caesia) Hairy Dog-rose
(Rosa caesia subsp. vosagiaca) Glaucous Dog-rose
(Rosa canina agg.) Dog Rose
(Rosa carolina) [no name#2]
(Rosa centifolia) Cabbage Rose
(Rosa chinensis) China Rose
(Rosa ferruginea) Red-leaved Rose
(Rosa gymnocarpa var. willmottiae) [no name#3]
(Rosa luciae) Memorial Rose
(Rosa majalis) [no name#4
(Rosa mollis agg.) Soft Downy-rose
(Rosa multiflora) Many-flowered Rose
(Rosa noisettiana) Noisette Rose
(Rosa pendulina) Alpine Rose
(Rosa rubiginosa agg.) Sweet Briar
(Rosa sempervirens) [no name#5]
(Rosa sericea) [no name#6]
(Rosa setigera) Prairie Rose
(Rosa virginiana) Virginian Rose

Red-Leaved Rose (Rosa glauca) Photo: © RWD

Northern Dog-Rose (Rosa caesia) Photo: © RWD



[SORBUS] Whitebeam

Dandelions (as well as Brambles (Rubus, Hawkweeds (Hieracium) all have hundreds of species. They are all apomictic (or agamospermic - asexual reproduction via seeds), capable of the production of viable seeds without self-fertilization or cross-fertilization and are entirely female in origin. Plants growing from these seeds are clones. This process results in a wide spectrum of hybrid microspecies, most looking very similar. All or most species of Dandelion are hybrids which reproduce asexually - only a handful reproduce by sexual means. Hawthorns (Cratageous), Rowans & Whitebeams (Sorbus), Meadow-grasses (Poa) and Lady's-mantles (Alchemilla) are also apomictic with dozens of very similar hybrid species.

 

[Sorbus]
WHITEBEAM HYBRID CHART
[Sorbus]
WHITEBEAM
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Whitebeam
(aria)
Rowan
(aucuparia)
Swedish
Whitebeam

(intermedia)
Wild
Service-tree

(torminalis)
Wild
Service-tree

(torminalis)
Wye
Whitebeam
   
Swedish
Whitebeam

(intermedia)
  Sorbus
×
liljeforsii
 
Rowan
(aucuparia)
Sorbus
×
thuringiaca
Sorbus
×
liljeforsii
 
Whitebeam
(aria)
Sorbus
×
thuringiaca
  Wye
Whitebeam

Sorbus SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Sorbus admonitor) No Parking Whitebeam
(Sorbus anglica) English Whitebeam
(Sorbus arranensis) Arran Whitebeam
(Sorbus bristoliensis) Bristol Whitebeam
(Sorbus croceocarpa) A Broad-leaved Whitebeam
(Sorbus cuneifolia) Llangollen Whitebeam
(Sorbus decipiens) A Broad-leaved Whitebeam
(Sorbus devoniensis) A Whitebeam
(Sorbus domestica) Service-tree
(Sorbus eminens) Round-leaved Whitebeam
(Sorbus glabriuscula) Hupeh Rowan
(Sorbus hibernica) Irish Whitebeam
(Sorbus hybrida) Swedish Service Tree
(Sorbus intermedia agg.) Swedish Whitebeam
(Sorbus lancastriensis) Lancaster Whitebeam
(Sorbus latifolia) A Broad-leaved Whitebeam
(Sorbus leptophylla) Thin-leaved Whitebeam
(Sorbus leyana) Ley's whitebeam
(Sorbus minima) Least Whitebeam
(Sorbus mougeotii) Mougeot's Whitebeam
(Sorbus porrigentiformis) Grey-leaved Whitebeam
(Sorbus pseudofennica) Arran Service-tree
(Sorbus rupicola) Rock Whitebeam
(Sorbus sargentiana) Sargent's Rowan
(Sorbus scannelliana) Maura Scannell's Whitebeam
(Sorbus subcuneata) A Whitebeam
(Sorbus thibetica) Mitchell's Whitebeam
(Sorbus vestita)
(Sorbus vexans) Bloody Whitebeam
(Sorbus whiteana) White's Whitebeam
(Sorbus wilmottiana) Wilmott's Whitebeam

Dwarf Rowan (Sorbus reducta) Photo: © John Brailsford

Japanese Rowan (Sorbus commixta) Photo: © RWD

Khumbuensis Rowan (Sorbus khumbuensis) Photo: © John Brailsford

Kashmir Rowan (Sorbus cashmiriana) Photo: © RWD

Vilmorin's Rowan (Sorbus vilmorinii) Photo: © RWD

Joseph Rock's Rowan (Sorbus Joseph Rock) Photo: © RWD



[COTONEASTER] Cotoneaster

 

[Cotoneaster]
COTONEASTER HYBRID CHART
[Cotoneaster]
COTONEASTER
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Tibetan
Cotoneaster

(conspicuus)
Bearberry
Cotoneaster

(dammeri)
Tree
Cotoneaster

(frigidus)
Willow-leaved
Cotoneaster

(salicifolius)
Willow-leaved
Cotoneaster

(salicifolius)
  Weeping
Cotoneaster
Cotoneaster
×
watereri
Tree
Cotoneaster

(frigidus)
    Cotoneaster
×
watereri
Bearberry
Cotoneaster

(dammeri)
Cotoneaster
×
suecicus
  Weeping
Cotoneaster
Tibetan
Cotoneaster

(conspicuus)
Cotoneaster
×
suecicus
   

According to the list your Author found (shown below) below there are 66 Cotoneasters which do not hybridise, but Clive Stace lists 93 (of which only 2 or 3 hybridise) in the latest edition of the 'New Flora of the British Isles' in his thick book.

The Cotoneasters which Stace lists are in 3 series, 2 sub-genera, and 1 section. Again your Author cannot be bothered listing what occurs where, as no doubt, as taxonomy progresses, they might all swap places in the future anyway...

Cotoneaster SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Cotoneaster adpressus) Creeping Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster affinis) Purpleberry Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster amoenus) Beautiful Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster apiculatus) Apiculate Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster ascendens) Ascending Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster astrophoros) Starry Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster atropurpureus) Purple-flowered Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster bacillaris) Open-fruited Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster boisianus) Bois's Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster bullatus) Hollyberry Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster cambricus) Wild Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster cashmiriensis) Kashmir Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster cochleatus) Yunnan Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster congestus) Congested Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster cooperi) Cooper's Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster dielsianus) Diel's Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster divaricatus) Spreading Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster ellipticus) Lindley's Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster fangianus) Fang's Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster franchetii) Franchet's Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster glabratus) Glabrous cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster glaucophyllus) Glaucous cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster henryanus) Henry's Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster hissaricus) Round-leaved Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster hjelmqvistii) Hjelmquist's Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster horizontalis) Wallspray
(Cotoneaster hsingshangensis) Hsing-Shan Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster hylmoei) Hylmo's Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster ignescens) Firebird cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster ignotus) Black-grape Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster induratus) Hardy cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster insculptus) Engraved Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster integrifolius) Entire-leaved Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster lacteus) Late Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster laetevirens) Ampfield Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster lucidus) Shiny Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster mairei) Maire's Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster marginatus) Fringed Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster microphyllus agg.) Wild Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster monopyrenus) One-stoned Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster moupinensis) Moupin Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster mucronatus) Mucronate Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster nanshan) Dwarf Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster nitens) Few-flowered Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster obscurus) Obscure Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster obtusus) Dartford Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster pannosus) Silverleaf Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster perpusillus) Slender cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster prostratus) Procumbent Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster pseudoambiguus) Kangting Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster rehderi) Bullate Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster rotundifolius) Round-leaved Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster sanguineus)
(Cotoneaster sherriffii) Sherriff's Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster simonsii) Khasia Berry
(Cotoneaster sp.)
(Cotoneaster splendens) Showy Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster sternianus) Stern's Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster tengyuehensis) Tengyueh Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster thymifolius) Thyme-leaved Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster tomentellus) Short-felted Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster transens) Godalming Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster villosulus) Lleyn Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster vilmorinianus) Vilmorin's Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster wardii) Ward's Cotoneaster
(Cotoneaster zabelii) Cherryred Cotoneaster

Entire-Leaved Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster integrifolius) Photo: © RWD

Hjelmqvist's Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster hjelmqvistii) Photo: © RWD

Welsh Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster cambricus) Photo: © RWD

Franchet's Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster franchetii) Photo: © RWD



[CHAENOMELES] Japanese Quinces

Chinese Quince (Chaenomeles speciosa) Photo: © RWD



[CRATAEGUS] Hawthorns

Dandelions [as well as Brambles (Rubus), Hawkweeds (Hieracium)] all have hundreds of species. They are all apomictic (or agamospermic - asexual reproduction via seeds), capable of the production of viable seeds without self-fertilisation or cross-fertilisation and are entirely female in origin. Plants growing from these seeds are clones. This process results in a wide spectrum of hybrid microspecies, most looking very similar. All or most species of Dandelion are hybrids which reproduce asexually - only a handful reproduce by sexual means. Hawthorns (Cratageous), Rowans & Whitebeams (Sorbus), Meadow-grasses (Poa) and Lady's-mantles (Alchemilla) are also apomictic with dozens of very similar hybrid species.

 

[Crataegus]
HAWTHORN HYBRID CHART
[Crataegus]
HAWTHORN
HYBRIDS
BSBI MAPS
Various-leaved
Hawthorn

(heterophylla)
Midland
Hawthorn

(laevigata)
Common
Hawthorn

(monogyna)
Common
Hawthorn

(monogyna)
heterophylla
×
monogyna
Crataegus
×
media
Midland
Hawthorn

(laevigata)
  Crataegus
×
media
Various-leaved
Hawthorn

(heterophylla)
  heterophylla
×
monogyna

The Hybrid Cockspur shown not in the hybrid chart but in the list of non-hybrids below is a result of it being a hybrid between two North American species, Crataegus crux-galli and C. stipulacea, which do not occur in the UK and so are not listed in the BSBI website.

Crataegus SPECIES LACKING HYBRIDS
(Crataegus coccinioides) Large-flowered Cockspurthorn
(Crataegus crus-galli) Cockspurthorn
(Crataegus intricata) Thicket/Intricate Hawthorn
(Crataegus mollis) Downy Hawthorn
(Crataegus nigra) Hungarian Hawthorn
(Crataegus orientalis) Oriental Hawthorn
(Crataegus pedicellata) Pear-fruited Cockspurthorn
(Crataegus persimilis) Broad-Leaved Cockspurthorn
(Crataegus punctata) Dotted Hawthorn
(Crataegus sanguinea) Redshaw Hawthorn
(Crataegus submollis) Hairy Cockspur-thorn
(Crataegus succulenta) Round-fruited Cockspurthorn
(Crataegus x lavallei) Hybrid Cockspurthorn

Family: Rose [Rosaceae]

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