Habitat Colour Flowers Leaf Shape
Leaf Edge Leaves Shape / Posture Hairs
Property Healing Edibility Seasons
Compass Points Country Abundance Reproduction / Sex
Flower Sex Magnitude Aesthetics Odour
Taste Dye Misc Pre- & Suf-fixes
Nomenclature Map Areas

The purpose of the Latin or botanical name of plants is to provide some information about a particular plant that distinguishes it from other plants.

The first part of the binomial name always names the Genus to which the plant belongs (although this can change from time to time dependant upon the whim of taxonomists). The genus name is also descriptive of that particular genus, describing some aspect of it.

The second part of the binomial name is the species name; the adjective applied to the plant, called the specific epithet, which is often helpful in describing the plant. The specific epithet may tell us the colour of the flowers, the height of the plant, whether the leaves are long and thin or short and fat, whether the plant is prickly, where it comes from (which might give us a clue as to how hardy it is), what sort of conditions it occurs in naturally, how big it is, whether it's a climber or whether it's creeping, whether it's deciduous, has a bulb, is edible - or whatever else the person who found it (correctly or mistakenly) thought most remarkable, noteworthy and unique about it.

Like many other languages, Latin assigns genders to all its nouns, and the adjectives have to be compatible with the gender of the noun they describe. In plant names, therefore, those genera which are deemed masculine will end with -us, those that are feminine will terminate with -a, and those that are neuter will end in -um (plus some others with alternative endings), but all have much the same meaning.

However, not all binomial names are in Latin. Some are in Greek, or a binomial combination of both Latin and Greek. Some are invented latinesque-type names which were never a part of the original Latin language, or are even a bastardised admixture of latin and greek forms in one word.

The list below shows the meanings of the specific epithets, grouped by meaning.

 Terrestris  In dry soil
 Amphibia / Amphibius  Living on land and in water
 Aquatilis / Aquaticus / Aquaticum  In water
 Fontana / Fontanum  Of Springs / Near Water
 Palustris / Palustre  Of Marshland or Bog
 Uliginosum / Uliginosa  Of Marshland / Fen
 Paludosa / Paludosus  Of Bog
 Rivale / Rivalis / Rivularis  By a Brook / Water
 Fluviatile / Fluviatilis  In a River
 Stagnalis  Still Water / Pond
 Lacustris  Of Ponds or Lakes
 Rupicola  On hills
 Clivora  On hills
 Montana / Montanus  On a mountain
 Alpina / Alpinum / Alpinus / Alpestris  Alpine
 Alpicola / Alpestris  Mountains
 Arcticum / Arctica  Arctic
 Glacialis  in Cold Areas
 Oreades  Mountain Nymph
 Submontana  Below Mountains
 Uplandicum  Uplands
 Hypogeus  Underground
 Saxatalis / Saxatilis  Of Stoney Places
 Rupestris  Of Cliffs/Rocks
 Petraea  On Rocks
 Saxicola  On Rocks
 Muralis / Parietina  On Walls
 Tectorius  On Roofs
 Arenia / Arenarium / Arenaria / Arenarius  On Sand / Dunes
 Dunensis  On Dunes
 Maritima / Maritimum / Maritimus / Marina / Marinum  By the Sea
 Paralis  On the Beach
 Littorea / Littoralis  On the Seashore
 Arboricola  On Trees
 Sylvatica / Sylvestris  In a Wood
 Nemerosa / Nemorum  Of the Woods
 Arvensis / Arvense  Of Arable/Ploughed Fields
 Pratensis / Pratense  In a Meadow
 Sepium  Of Hedges
 Campestre / Campestris  Fields / Lowland Plains / Open Country
 Nivalis  Of Snow
 Urbanum  Related to Towns
 Hortensis  Garden (not Wild) / Horticultured
 Sativa / Sativum / Sativus A crop plant / Cultivated

 Caeruleum / Caerulea  Dark-blue
 Caerulescens  Blueish
 Azureum / Azurea  Sky-blue
 Cyanus  Blue
 Caesius  Lavender blue
 Pavonius  Peacock blue
 Violacea / Viloaceus  Violet
 Purpurea / Purpureus  Purple
 Phoenicea  Purple
 Magenta  Reddish-Purple
 Purpureum / Purpurea / Purpurella / Purpurata  Dull-red Purple
 Ignea  Fiery Red
 Erythraea / Erythrea  Red
 Cerasifera / Cerasus  Red
 Punica  Red
 Atropurpurea  Dark Purple
 Puniceus  Reddish-Purple
 Rufida  Reddish
 Atrorubens  Dark Red
 Purpurocaeruleuma  Blue and Purple
 Coccinea / Coccineus / Cardinalis  Scarlet
 Rubens / Rubra  Red
 Rubellum  Reddish
 Sanguineum / Sanguineus / Sanguinea  Blood Red
 Rosea / Roseus  Rose-pink
 Aurantiaca / Auratiacus  Orange
 Aurantium / Aurea / Aureus  Orange / Golden Yellow
 Flavescens  Turning Yellowish
 Luridum  Pale Yellow
 Flavum / Flava  Yellow
 Xantho-  Yellow
 Croceus  Saffron Yellow
 Crysantha  Yellow (of anthers?)
 Luteus / Luteola / Lutea  Deep Yellow
 Luteolus / Sulphurea  Pale Yellow
 Flavidus  Slightly Yellow
 Viridis / Viridula / Viride / Virens  Green
 Chloro-  Green
 Atrovirens  Dark Green
 Casius / Caesia  Bluish or Greenish Grey
 Glaucum  Glaucous (bluish [or greenish] grey
 Argentatum / Argetea  Silvery
 Candidus / Candida  Bright / White
 Calcareus  Chalky White
 Alba / Albus / Album / Albida / Albicans  White
 Leuco-  White
 Canum  White / Hoary
 Albescens  Whitish
 Niveus  Snow Whit
 Canescens  Greyish-White
 Cinerea  Grey
 Incana  Grey
 Molybdo-  Leaden-Grey
 Ustalata  Burnt
 Nigricans  Blackening
 Niger / Nigra / Nigrum  Black (or poisonous)
 Pallida  Cream
 Ochroleuca  Cream
 Incarnata  Flesh-coloured
 Stramineus  Straw-coloured
 Brunnescens  Browning / Bronzed
 Fusca  Brown
 Concolor  Same colour
 Discolor  Two-coloured
 Trionum / Tricolor  Three-coloured
 Chrom- / Chromo- / chroum  Coloured / Pigmented
 Lucidum / Lucens / Nitida / Fulgens  Shiny / Glossy

 Florida  Flowering
 Anthus  Flower
 Flora- / Flos-  Flower
 Densiflora  Densely-flowered
 Multiflora  Many-flowered
 Pauciflora  Few-flowered
 Uniflora  One-flowered
 Micrantha  Small-flowered
 Parviflora / Parviflorus  Puny Flower
 Grandiflorus / Grandiflora  Large-flowered
 Longiflora  Long-flowered
 Macrantha  Large-flowered
 Nodiflorum  Flowers sprouting from Nodes
 Octopetalla  Eight-petalled
 Lupulina  Having Hops
 Stellaris  Starry
 Noctiflora / Nocturnum  Night-flowering
 Campanulata  Bell-shaped
 Viridiflorus  Green-Flowered
 Chloranthus  Green-flowered
 Chrysantha  Golden-Flowered
 Paniculata  Flowers in Panicles
 Racemosum  Flowers in Racemes
 Flore pleno  'with full flower' - Double-flowered. Associated more with cultivated varieties

 Leaf Shape  
 Rotundifolia  Round-leaved
 Nummularia  Coin-shaped
 Obtusifolia / Obtusifolium  Blunt-leaved
 Brevifolia  Short-leaved
 Longifolia  Long-leaved
 Latifolia / Latifolium  Broad-leaved
 Latifolia  Wide-leaved
 Augustifolium  Narrow-leaved
 Tenuifolia  Slender-leaved / Thin-leaved
 Lanceolata / Lancifolium  Lance-shaped
 Ensata / Xiphium  Sword-like
 Planifolia  Linear-leaved
 Ovata / Ovalifolium  Ovate / Oval
 Cordata  Heart-shaped
 Peltata  Shield-shaped
 Subulata  Awl-shaped
 Sagittifolium  Arrow-shaped
 Ficus  Fig-shaped
 Ulmus / Ulmaria / Ulmifolia  Elm-shaped
 Quercifolia  Oak-leaved
 Hedera / Hederaceus  Ivy-leaved
 Vitifolia  Vine-leaved
 Ficifolia  Fig-leaved
 Bellidifolia  Daisy-leaved
 Serpyllifolia  Thyme-leaved
 Botrys / Botryoides  Kidney-shaped / Bunch-of-Grapes-like
 Ovalifolia  Oval-leaved
 Palmata  Lobed like a Hand

 Leaf Edge  
 Dentata  Concavely Toothed
 Crenata  Convexly Toothed
 Serrata  Saw-toothed
 Sinuata  Wavy-toothed
 Lacinata / Laciniata  Irregularly and deeply cut
 Integerrima / Integrifolia  Without teeth / Entire
 Crispula / Crispus / Crispa  Wrinkly / wavy
 Undulatum / Undulata  Wavy
 Plicatus / Plicata  Pleated

 Folius  Leaved
 Parvifolia  Small-leaved
 Microphylla  Small-leaved
 Macrophylla  Large-leaved
 Platyphyllos  Large-leaved
 Oppositofolia / Oppositifolia  Opposite-leaved
 Alternifolia / Alternata  Alternate-leaved
 Heterophyllum  Different-leaved
 Ternata  In Groups of Three
 Trifolia / Trifoliata  Three-leaved
 Tetralix / Tetraphyllum  (4) Leaves in a Whorl
 Quadrifolia  Four-leaved
 Quinquefolia  Five-Leaved
 Digitata  Hand-like leaves/ with 5 lobes
 Verticulatum  Whorled
 Paucifolia  With Few leaves
 Foliosa  Leafy
 Polyphyllus / Polyphylla  Many leaves / leaflets
 Millefolium  With Thousands of Leaflets
 Perfoliatum  Two opposite leaves fused together with stem piercing centre
 Connata  Two organs fused together. When applied to leaves: Two opposite leaves fused together with stem piercing centre
 Decurrens  Base of Leaf pierced by Stem
 Pinnatus / Pinnata  Pinnate
 Polifolia  Grey-leaved
 Cristata  Crested
 Tripolium  Three-veined
 Trinervia  Three-veined
 Reticulata  Net-veined / Reticulated
 Nervosa  Conspicuously veined
 Variegatum  Bi-coloured leaves
 Sempervirens  Evergreen
 Decidua  Deciduous

 Shape / Posture  
 Erecta / Recta  Upright
 Verticillatum  Vertical
 Altissimus / Altissima  Tall
 Longus  Long
 Pendula  Drooping
 Nutans / Cernuus  Nodding / Nutating
 Reptans  Prostrate
 Prostata / Prostratus  Prostrate
 Procumbens  Prostrate
 Humifusa / Humifusum / Humilis  Prostrate / Low-growing
 Stoloniferus  Underground stolons
 Repens  Creeping
 Chamaedrys  Creeping
 Patula  Spreading
 Effusus  Spread-out
 Supinum  Flat on the Ground
 Spicata  Spiked
 Flexuosa / Flexuosum  Zig-zag / Tortuous
 Conopsia  Cone-shaped
 Pyramidalis / Pyramidata  Pyramidal
 Umbellatum / Umbellatum  Umbrella-like
 Deltoides / Deltoidea  Triangular (equilateral)
 Spicant / Spicata  Spiked
 Caespitosa / Comosa  Tufted?? Dense??
 Obtusangula  Obtuse-angled
 Truncata  Truncated
 Arboreus / Arborescens  Becoming Tree-like
 Arborescens  Tree-like
 Fruticosa / Fruticosus  Shrubby
 Cistus  Shrub
 Suffruticosa  Sub-shrubby
 Multiplex  With Many Stems
 Furcatus  Forked
 Dichotomus  Dichomous / Branching by repeated bifurcation
 Infracta / Incurvum  Curving inwards

 Glabra  Smooth / Hairless
 Laevigatum  Smooth
 Canum / Incana  Hoary / White / Grey
 Lanata  Woolly
 Capillaris  With Hairs
 Villosa / Vilosum  Softly Hairy
 Polytrichus  Hairy
 Tomentosa  Woolly Hairy / Tomentose
 Hirsuta / Hirsutum / Hirta  Hairy
 Pilosa / Pilosum  Hairy
 Pubescens  Hairy (or ripe)
 Barbata  Bearded / Hairy
 Velutina  Velvety
 Setosa / Setosus / Setosum  Bristly
 Hispidus  With Coarse Bristles
 Pilosus / Crinita  Long-haired

 Scaber  Climbing
 Scandens  Climbing
 Volubilis  Twining
 Viscosus / Viscosa / Viscaria  Sticky
 Glutinosa  Sticky
 Granulata  With Little Knobs
 Sphondylium  Rounded
 Corniculatus  Horned
 Petiola  Stalked
 Nodosa  Nobbly / With Nodes
 Glandulifera  With Glands
 Bulbosum / Bulbosa  Bulbous
 Hypnoides  Below the Nodes
 Helio  of the Sun
 Helioscopia  Looks at the Sun
 Auri  Little Ear
 Podium  Foot
 Cruciata  Cross-shaped
 Tridactyl  Three-fingered
 Dissectum / Dissecta  Deeply Divided / Cleft
 Farinosa  Mealy
 Squamaria  Scaly
 Radicata  Having Roots
 Radicans  With Rooting Stems
 Tuberosum / Tuberosus  Tuberous Roots
 Macrorhiza  Large Roots
 Acaulis  Large Stemless
 Graminae / Graminifolia  Grass-like
 Tenella  Dainty
 Striata / Striatus  Striated / Ridged / Striped
 Vittatum  Banded
 Elongata  Elongated
 Rigescens  Somewhat Rigid
 Inflexus  Inflexible
 Rigidissimus  Very Rigid
 Robustus  Stout / Rigid
 Flexilis  Pliable
 Fragilis  Fragile
 Helix / Spiralis  Helical / Coiled
 Glomerata  Clustered
 Triangularis  3-angled
 Quadrangularis  4-angled
 Tetragonum  Square-stemmed
 Tetraplesum  4-winged (stalk)
 Sexangularis  6-angled
 Septemlobus  7-lobed
 Octoflorus  8-flowered
 Novemneris  9-nerved
 Decemlobus  10-lobed
 Subterraneum  Burrowing
 Maculatum / Maculata / Maculosa  Spotted
 Punctata  Spotted
 Sphaerocephalon  Round-headed
 Virgatum / Virgata  Twiggy
 Inflata  Swollen / Inflated
 Spinosa / Spinosum  Spiny
 Fistulosa  Tubular
 Discolor  Two-coloured
 Trionum / Tricolor  Three-coloured
 Aspera / Asper  Rough
 Macrocarpa  Large-fruited
 Compacta  Compact
 Armata  Prickly
 Bulbifera  Bearing Bulbs
 Furcatus  Forked
 Ramosum  Branched
 Dichotomus  Dichomous / Branching by repeated bifurcation

 Officinalis / Officinale Medicinal / Used by apothecaries
 Officinarum  Of Herb use
 Catharticum  Purging
 Dysenteria For treating dysentry
 Vulneria For healing wounds
 Frammula  Inflammatory

 Sativa / Sativum / Sativus A crop plant / Cultivated
 Edulis  An edible plant
 Esculentis  An edible plant
 Oleraceous  Kitchen pot herb
 Officinalis  of herb use (not necessarily edible!)

 Vernus / Vernum / Verna / Veris / Vernalis  Spring
 Autumnalis / Autumnale  Autumn
 Aestivum / Aestivalis  Summer
 Hyemalis  Winter
 Nivalis  Snow
 Frigidus / Frigida  Cold
 Annua / Annuus  Annual
 Biennis  Biennial
 Perennis / Perenne  Perennial
 Rediviva  Reviving (Perennial)
 Praecox  Early flowering / Spring
 Serotina  Late flowering
 Majalis  Of the month of May

 Compass Points  
 Borealis / Boreale  Northern
 Australis  Southern
 Orientalis  Eastern
 Occidentalis / Hesperius  Western

 Cambrica / Cambrensis / Cambricus  Welsh
 Cornubiensis  Cornwall
 Anglica / Anglicum  English
 Scoticum / Scotica  Scottish
 Kewensis  Kew Gardens
 Zetlandica  Shetland Isles
 Europaea / Europaeus  European
 Islandica  Icelandic
 Danica  Danish
 Hollandica / Neerlandica  Holland
 Hispanica  Spanish
 Norvegica  Norwegian
 Canadensis  Canadian
 Caucasia  Caucasian
 Bohemica  Bohemian
 Pyrenaicum / Pyrenaica  Pyrenean
 Chinense / Sinense / Sinensis  Chinese
 Italicum / Italicus  Italian
 Americanus / Americana  American
 Baltica  Baltic
 Maroccana  Morocco
 Japonica / Japonicus  Japanese
 Asiatica / Asiaticus  Asian
 Austriaca / Austricus  Austrian
 Camtschatcense  Kamchatka
 Germanica / Germanicus  Germany
 Cyparissias  Cypress
 Abyssinica / Ethiopica  Ethiopia
 Siberica / Sibirica  Siberia
 Armeniacum  Armenia
 Cashmiriani  Kashmir
 Arabicus  Arabia
 Africanus  Africa
 Helvetica  Switzerland
 Zeylanicus  Ceylon
 Indicus  India
 Russica  Russia
 Australiensis  Australia
 Graeca  Greece
 Chilensis  Chile
 Bonariensis  Buenos Aires
 Canariensis  Canary Isles
 Capensis  Cape, South Africa
 Chilensis  Chile

 Vulgaris / Vulgare / Vulgatum  Common
 Communis  Common
 Prolifera  Proliferous

 Reproduction / Sex  
 Sterilis  Sterile / Barren
 Dioica  Divided (M & F on separate stems/plants)
 Viviparum / Vivipara  Germinating whilst still attached to its parent
 Hybridus  Hybrid (Genus × bbb)
 Chimaera  A cross (hybrid)
 Intermedia  A cross (hybrid)
 Digyna  With 2 Styles or Carpels
 Pentandra  Five-stamenned
 Hexandra  Six-stamenned
 Hermaphroditia  Male & Female
 Pubescens  Ripe (or hairy)
 Exoleta  Mature
 Polygama  Mixed Gender
 Polysperma  With many Seeds
 Parthenos / Parthenium  Maidens / Virgin
 Mascula  Male
 Femina  Female
 Haploid  Containing only one (homologous) set of chromosomes
 Diploid  Containing 2 (homologous) sets of chromosomes, the normal for eukaryotic species which contain a cell nucleus, animals, plants and fungi
 Triploid  Containing 3 (homologous) sets of chromosomes
 Tetraploid  Containing 4 (homologous) sets of chromosomes, such as Durum wheat and many Brassicas
 Hexaploid  Containing 6 (homologous) sets of chromosomes, such as bread wheat
 Polyploid  Containing >2 paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes, especially common in plants. Such plants are usually taller and more rugged.
 Allopolyploidy  The doubling of the number of chromosomes
 Homologous Chromosomes  One set of chromosomes, comprising a maternal and paternal pair.
 Homeologous Chromosomes  Partially similar chromosomes from differing species.

 The Sex of Flowers  
 Plant Sexuality    Plant Sexuality 
 Hermaphrodite  All flowers having male and female characteristics
 Andromonoecy  Separate male and female flowers on the same plant
 Gynomonoecy  Both female and hermaphrodite flowers on the same plant
 Monoecy  Separate female and hermaphrodite flowers on the same plant
 Androdioecy  Male plants co-exist with hermaphrodite or monoecious plants
 Gynodioecy  Female plants co-exist with hermaphrodite or monoecious plants
 Dioecy  Male and female flowers on separate plants
 Sub-Dioecy  Possessing both hermaphroditic and dioeceous properties
 Notho-  A Hybrid
 Other  more complex arrangements

 Minutus  Very small
 Nana  Small
 Bumilis / Pumilus  Dwarf
 Pygmaea  Small
 Parvi-  Small
 Micro-  Small
 Pumila  Small
 Minimus / Minima  Smallest
 Vesca  Little
 Minus / Minor  Lesser / Smaller
 Media / Intermedia  Intermediate / Middle / Medium
 Major / Majus  Greater / Larger
 Elatum  Tall
 Procera / Procerum / Procerus  Taller
 Exaltatum / Exaltus  Very Tall
 Altissima / Altissimum / Altissimus / Altus  Tallest
 Grandis  Large
 Magna  Big
 Majus  Bigger
 Gigantea / Giganteum / Giganteus  Giant
 Maximum / Maxima  Largest
 Major  Greater
 Minor  Lesser

 Formosa / Amabilis Beautiful
 Decorus  Beautiful
 Tenella  Dainty
 Elegans  Elegant
 Elegantissimo  Most Elegant
 Eximia / Princeps  Distinguished
 Nobile  Notable
 Bella  Pretty
 Pulchellum / Pulchellus  Pretty
 Splendens / Splendidum  Splendid
 Venusta  Charming
 Superba / Superbus  Superb
 Magnifica  Magnificent
 Spectabilis  Spectacular
 Gloriosa  Glorious
 Gracilis  Graceful
 Jucundum  Pleasing
 Blanda  Pleasant
 Fastuosum  Proud

 Odorata / Odoratus / Odoratum  Scented / Perfumed
 Tetrahit  Foetid
 Foetidus / Foetida / Foetidissima  Stinking
 Graveolens  Strong Smelling
 Moscatum / Moschata / Moschatus  Musky odour
 Fragrans  Fragrant
 Suaveolens  Sweetly scented
 Inodorum / Inodora  Scentless

 Acris / Acre  Acrid, Sharp Taste
 Acetosa / Acetosella  Acidic
 Amarella / Amarus  Bitter
 Oxycoccus  Sharp tasting

 Tinctoria / Tinctorius / Tinctorum A plant useful for extracting a dye
 Crocata  Citron-yellow (dye)

 Sorbus  Berry
 Vulneratis  Wounded / Damaged
 Ophrys  Testicle
 Canina  Dog
 Saxifraga  Stone-breaker
 Molle / Mollis / Mollugo  Soft
 Columbaria  Dove-like
 Insectifera  Insect bearing
 Pulverulenta  Dusty
 Farinosa  Floury / Powdery
 Verum  True
 Sominifera  Sleep inducing
 Nocturna  Nocturnal

 Prefixes & Suffixes  
 -phylla  Leaves
 -folia  Leaves
 -macro  Large
 -flora  Flowers
 -antha  Flowers
 -oides  Looks like / Similar to
 -escens  Becoming
 Poly-  Many
 Xantho-  Green
 Chloro-  Green
 Leuco-  White
 Chromo-  Coloured
 Flora-  Flower
 Flos-  Flower
 Micra- / Micro-  Small
 Macra- / Macro-  Large
 Notho-  A Hybrid
 Parvi-  Small
 Pauci-  Few
 Uni- Mon-  One
 Bi- / Di-  Two
 Tri-  Three
 Quadr(i/a)- / Tetra-  Four
 Quinque- / Penta-  Five
 Sex- / Hex-  Six
 Septem- / Hepta-  Seven
 Octo-  Eight
 Novem- / Ennea-  Nine
 Decum- / Deca-  Ten
 Epi-  Over / Above / Upon - (Epic)
 Sub-  Below / Beneath / Less than

 sens. lat. (or s.l.) sensu lato in the broadest sense : denotes 'no taxon'; it is used to mean that it encompasses all taxon of the species.
 senso stricto (or s.s.)  in the strictest sense : used to denote that it applies to only one taxon, e.g. Polypodium vulgare ss. (rather than Polypodium vulgare sl.)
 agg. aggregate: a group of closely related species or sub-species.
 sp.  Species (singular).
 spp.  Species (plural)
 subsp. (or ssp.)  A sub-species of the taxonomic rank having various small differences, but which can interbreed with each other
 microsp. (or microssp.)  A microspecies of the taxonomic rank having a continuous spectrum of various small differences often perpetuated by apomixis (reproduction without fertilisation) - a genetic swarm, as in Taraxacum (Dandelion) microspp and Rubus (Bramble) microspp.
 var.  A differing variety of the species in question, a naturally occurring and distinct form of a plant, but of lower rank than is a sub-species.
 +  A chimera created by a grafting process, e.g. Aesculus + domestica (Dallimore's Chestnut), being a fusion between Horse Chestnut and Yellow Buckeye
 cv.  Cultivar. 'cultivated variety' or man-made hybrid. The cultivar common name is often shown between single quotes, e.g. Mallus domestica cv. 'Granny Smith'
 nom. nud.  Latin: Nomen nudum = naked name). A name which is not currently accepted
 nom. illeg.  Nomen illegitimum - an illegitimate name
 nom. superfl.  Nomen superfluum - a superfluous name
 syn.  Synonym - a mis-applied name from another Author
 auct. brit  Auctorum Brit. - a name mis-used by British authors
 auct. non  Auctorum non - a previously used name for a species
<Genus Name>  a × b  Denotes a hybrid between species 'a' and species 'b'.
<Genus Name> × c  Denotes it is the 'common name' of the hybrid (between two un-specified plants a and b).
X <Genus Name> b  The large 'X' denotes that it is an inter-genera hybrid. Sometimes alternately shown as '<Genus Name A> X <Genus Name B> c'
 ±  Approximately, tendency towards, not all do, varies, airy-fairy get-out clause!
 flore pleno  'with full flower' - Double-flowered. Associated more with cultivated varieties
 SSSI  A Site of Special Scientific Interest (but not necessarily for flora!)  SSSIs
 NNR  A National Nature Reserve (but not necessarily for flora, it could be for wildlife, geology, etc)  NNRs in England

 Map Areas   
 MyriadView Large
 100km x 100km (shown as bolder blue lines on OS maps)
 Reqs 2-letter Grid Ref, eg SD
 Hectad 10km x 10km (an OS 'tile')
 A myriad divided into 100 square areas. There are ~3854 hectads in the British Isles discounting some tiny ones near the coast occupying as little as 1m2.
Reqs 2-figure Grid Ref, eg SD15
 Quadrant 5km x 5km
 (not to be confused with quadrats below). Not an OS grid unit; a hectad divided into 4 square areas.
 Reqs 2-fig Grid Ref suffixed by one of these four 2-letter combos: SW, NW, NE, SE. eg. SD15NE
 Tetrad  2km x 2km 
 Not an OS grid unit; a hectad divided into 25 square areas.
 Reqs 2-figure Grid Ref plus a 'DINTY' (A-Z missing 'I') letter, eg SD15T
 Monad 1km x 1km (aka 'Grid Square')
 A hectad divided into 100 square areas.
 Reqs 4-figure Grid Ref, eg SD1252
 Hectare 100m x 100m [abbrev. ha] (aka Centisquare)
 A monad divided into 100 square areas.
 Reqs 6-figure Grid Ref, eg SD123523
 Quadrat The area within a small sub-divided frame of any size but usually 0.5m x 0.5m or 1m x 1m which is (usually arbitrarily) placed on the ground for recording species
 Transect Walking in a set line (marked by rope, not necessarily straight) to record species. Because how many plants you recognise might depend on the resolution of your eyes the plants have to be touching the rope to count. Use a very thick rope...
 Vice County Map (simple)
 Botanists cut up the UK into Vice Counties, where the boundaries do not constantly change at the whim of politicians or electioneers. Most are bounded by natural obstacles in the landscape such as rivers, hence the squiggly lines.
 Vice County Map (scalable)


 This Vice County map is scaleable and uses Ordnance Survey maps which includes mountains, valleys and contours. Unfortunately if used on a mobile phone it doesn't use the GPS for your position. Your Author has pre-selected the modern OS map as background for the reader, but other maps are available by using the options menu near top right.
 Most of the above areas are tied (quantised) to the UK Ordnance Survey grid, and are not located at arbitrary geographic locations (as far as their use in species recording is concerned. e.g. Farmers may differ re hectares of arbitrary shape).


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