MONOTERPENOIDS WITHIN THE FRUITS
The juice from the fresh fruit of Chaenomeles × superba contains many compounds that taste or smell either 'fruity' or resinous:
several monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes:
several monoterpene alcohols:
several monoterpene aldehydes:
Nonanal (aka Pelargonaldehyde)
0.03ppm Citral (aka
some monoterpene ketones:
and terpene esters:
0.15ppm Geranyl Acetate,
In total: 19.56ppm alcohols, 1.14ppm esters, 0.21ppm aldehydes, 0.28ppm terpene hydrocarbons and 0.21ppm aldehydes.
In the cis-form
Carveol is a constituent of Spear Mint and resembles that and
Caraway in odour. It is used as a fragrance in perfumes and as a flavouring in sweets and cakes. It exhibits activity against breast cancer.
Terpineol has four isomers,
δ-Terpineol, depending both upon the position of the -OH group and/or the double bond. Apart from β-Terpineol which does not exist in nature all are usually present with α-Terpineol, depicted above, being the major component. Terpineol has an odour similar to that of
Lilac and is used in perfumes and as a flavouring in foodstuffs, but also in disinfectants, polishes and other household products. α-Terpineol occurs in and is the principle aroma constituent of Lapsang Souchong tea imparted to it from the smoke of
Pine wood used to dry the tea.
α-Terpinyl Acetate (depicted above) is a monoterpene ester of α-Terpineol and Acetic Acid and used as a flavouring.
Perilla Aldehyde) is also found in the non-native herb
Perilla (Perilla frutescens) which is in the Mint and Dead-nettle Family Lamiaceae and which resembles Stinging Nettle. It has a minty cinnamon-like odour is used as a food additive and flavouring and also in perfumes to add a touch of 'spiciness'.
[The oxime of Perillaldehyde called
Perillartine is 2000 times sweeter than sugar and is used as a sweetener in Japan and in chewing gums, but is not present in Chinese Quince, which is extremely bitter rather than sweet. Note that it does not consist of any sugar units. Having no natural presence it is thus an artificial sweetener, but is not used outside of Japan].
Pelargonaldehyde), shown, is an alkyl aldehyde with formula C8H17CHO with a strong fruity or floral aroma and is also used in perfumes and as a flavouring. It is produced by the human body and attracts some mosquitos acting in synergy with exhaled CO2.
n-Undecanal, shown, is also an alkyl aldehyde with formula C10H21CHO and it too is used as both a flavour and a fragrance being permitted in foodstuffs.
Ethyl Anthranilate is an amino-benzoate and an ester of
Anthranilic Acid, that has been identified as a minor component of Burgundy Pinot Noir wines and has a fruity flavour also used in perfumes. Together with Methyl Anthranilate which occurs naturally more often than other Anthranilates it is a component of many flowers such as
Citronellyl Acetate is an ester of Citronellol and Acetic Acid with a sweet floral rose aroma and an intensely fruity taste which has a slight citrus hint. It is extensively used in perfumery and is also found in the oils from